1) Compare and contrast Roman and Greek temple architecture by using the Pantheon, Maison Carree and the Parthenon. Do these architectural programs serve different purposes? Throughout history, art has evolved and created many styles and forms. From a painting to the structure of an architectural building, artists have been influenced by another art work in one way or another. One highly influential example would be the connection between the Greek and Roman Worlds. The Greeks were a society that has inspired many works of the Romans.
Both created wonderful works of monuments, buildings, and temples which are well remembered in history. The works of the Roman and the Greek temple architectures can be thoroughly discussed by observed their common areas, differences and identify purposes of some of their famous work. The Greeks were cultural people whose art style was both philosophic and aesthetic. Their art was critically thought out yet beautiful in nature. Greeks had instituted the fundamental innovation in their art style, which meant their work was something to look at yet something to refine in nature.
They focused on the classical form of art balancing the needs and interest of a individual showing the natural look. This artistic style included monumental sculptures that were very significant and valuable to them. One of their temples was the Parthenon, a monument in which represents a physical embodiment of the ideals and realities of the Greek world. This temple represents its dedication to the virgin goddess Athena Parthenos. The architect of this classical Greek temple is open structures that show gaps between the long columns.
Their altars were also open as well and had large cult statues and treasures. The Romans were also cultural but they used practically and idealism in their work. These people admired the work of the Greeks but constructed their own style in their art and architecture. They were known for being good at building things using their own style of architectural formation. Romans made advancements in their architecture and created monumental practical structures. The Roman art style had similar temples resembling the Greeks such as the Maison Carree which looked liked the Parthenon.
The The Maison Carree, a well known temple in France, is a temples with columns that were spaced out like the Greek’s style, but they were high based with a big porch attached to it. The Pantheon was also a Roman period temple that resembled the Greek style because a part of the architecture was in a rectangular form. It also had columns that are noted on the porch section. What makes this temple interesting is the use of a dome in its architecture. It’s in the center and is in the circular formation. This structure demonstrated the Roman need to capture its history and significance.
Although these architectural programs all were used for religious purposes, they were also used in their own way. The Greeks having built the Parthenon served to be a place to worship outdoors. It was later turned into a Christian church. The Maison Carree was a place for traditional religious practices and was known for being fully developed. As for the Pantheon, it served to be a circular Roman temple and uses its dome to represent a huge space when looking up; giving a change in space as oppose to the Greeks whose spaces were in between the columns.
The Greek and Roman architecture forms have a connection to each other. Observing the areas they have in common can also note their differences. In addition, the two artistic periods display famous works, each serving in their own specific purpose. All in which, demonstrates the high influence the Greek has placed on the Roman. 2. Compare and contrast Chartres Cathedral and Abbey of Conques as examples of the periods in which they were built. Be sure to clearly state which period each monument belongs and what the stylistic features are that are representative of that period.
Why are these features representatives of the period (historical/contextual reasons)? Religion has been well known for centuries and has developed many places for people to practice and worship their beliefs. Before the construction of cathedrals, religion was practice in churches that evolved into multiple units in a given section. Both churches and cathedrals have an important significance in art history. The Abbey of Conques and the Chartes Cathedral are historical monuments that comparable by style and art period as well as be identified by features that each of them possess while illustrating their historical purposes.
The Abbey of Conques, created around 1050, had given people a place to worship and was a place to have miracles performed. The Chartes Cathedral was noted to exist in the 4th century as a church before it was a big cathedral. It was noted for being a holy place to worship God and the Virgin Mary. However, the cathedral was rebuild after 1020 and again, many years later. Parts of the cathedral are different from one another. The left tower of the west front created in 1135, finished in the sixteenth century, and was farther advanced in stylistic period than the right tower.
During this time, window design and detailed figures on the walls were used. The right tower was from 1145 and was plain in decoration towards the top area. The Abbey was also reconstructed but with multiple added parts to the church. Reconstruction of the Abbey was more focused on adding different sized units. Not too much detail was noted on the walls. Like the Abbey, the Chartes had many vaults and rounded windows but other features differed. The Abbey featured compartments of the churches with many piers with symmetrically rounded arches.
The architecture contains outdoor walls that resembled fortresses. It is not easy to identify the time the walls are from but do like they are ancient. The spaces that were see-through were used for style to the walls. From a viewer’s point of view, the spaces look like window frames that can be used as vistas. The Chartes, on the other hand, had abstract windows with detailed art designs on them. Chartes was decorated with stories from the Old and New Testaments made of glass and stone as the Abbey did not specifically mention much about its decoration other than the use of stone carvings.
The Abbey was designed in a period when abstraction was a great focus in sculpting. It demonstrates religious writings from the Bible. As its use of stone carvings, allowed for onlookers to be open to imagining what they meant, stressing the importance of religion during this stylistic time. The Chartes represents the period of the Middles Ages in which the noted stone and glass everywhere told religious stories and spread knowledge to those looking at them. This period stressed the importance of religion and having faith.
Churches and cathedrals are still places for people to worship religious beliefs but they also made an impact in art. The style and art period of the two monuments are what make them different. The features to their structures illustrate the creators and builders focus and purpose of both the Abbey and the Chartes Cathedral monuments. Until now, religion is still practiced in churches and cathedrals still exist in certain areas which represents the significance these places are in art history. 3.
Discuss the development of the representation of the human figure by examining the Old Testament Figures from the North Portal, Chartres Cathedral and Reims Cathedral, Facade, Annunciation and Visitation. What intellectual background was the stimulus for the change? The Old Testament Figures from the North Portal, Chartres Cathedral was designed to make the figures stand out from the columns. They appear life-like and the closest thing to being a realistic sculpture as well as they look like they are floating in the air as if they are free. The Reims Cathedral, Facade, Annunciation and Visitation figures four women who are