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Research Paper Answers 1. What are the five developmental tasks of young adulthood, and how can the accomplishing of one influence the accomplishing of any of the remaining four? Levinson named five developmental tasks for young adults. These are pursuing a dream, creating relationships, developing an occupational career, forming a marriage and family and building responsibility in the larger community (Burns, 2005). These developmental tasks are interdependent on each other and achieving one affects the possibilities of accomplishing the other four.

The development of a career will help in achieving other tasks as the young adult attains a means with which she/he can support the family. The career may help in achieving the dream which may be based on the career or family. It is within the workplace that the young adult can easily establish mentor relationships with those she/he works with. Achieving these dreams challenges the young adult to take responsibilities within the community.

On the other hand, the mentor relationships may inspire the young adult in developing the career and in the pursuance of a career growth and responsibilities in the community, urging him/her to form a marriage and then family. 2. What is the function of fat in nutritional health besides serving as the body’s primary means of storage for excess calories? What is the basis of our current concern about saturated fats, cholesterol, and trans-fatty acids? In spite of the negativity that is related to fat in nutrition, there are some fats that are helpful to the body. These are the omega 3 fats and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.

These fats help in the metabolism functions. They also help in reducing cholesterol levels in the body. These fats provide the essential fatty acids that are required as a protection cushion for the vital organs and the body cells. Non-saturated fats are essential in brain development. Cholesterol is used replace and repair damaged artery cells thus reducing blood loss in the body. Stored fat is also used in providing energy whenever the body needs it. Fat is also needed in the body as it helps in the absorption of some vitamins such as Vitamin A, D, E, and K and also in the absorption of carotenoids.

The current concerns about saturated fats originated from a believe that all fat is bad as fat contains more calories than other food types, fat is readily metabolized and therefore requires no energy before its being stored and a believe that fat clogs the arteries. This in turn had resulted from wrong perceptions that saturated meat from red meat was the main cause for Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD), a number one killer heart disease. The oil producers responded to this by introducing hydrogenated vegetable oils which people wrongly believed that they were healthy fats.

As more people consumed these vegetable oils, the rate of IHD continued to increase. Further research by Dr. Mary Enig has confirmed that the diseases related to saturated fat are more as a result of increased consumption of vegetable oils and not saturated oils from red meat (Natural health information center, 2005). 3. Identify those risk factors for cardiovascular disease that cannot be changed. Identify those risk factors that can be changed. Lastly, identify the risk factors that can be contributing factors.

Some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases can be changed while others cannot be changed. The risk factors that cannot be changed include heredity, gender, and age. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases with age, and male are more prone to the disease than women. The risk of cardiovascular diseases is higher for those who have a family history of heart related diseases. The risk factors that can be changed through behavior change include tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity, a poor diet that includes high saturated fats, diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure and poverty.

Research has shown that stress mainly caused by poverty increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Some of these risks are correlated and contribute to the risk. Poor diet, physical inactivity and cigarette smoking contribute to a high blood pressure thus increasing the risk for heart disease. Those who suffer from type2 diabetes are at a higher risk of contracting heart diseases and they should try and control diabetes to reduce the risk (Burns, 2005). Obesity is a risk factor that contributes to the increase in heart disease.

Obesity is caused by physical inactivity and a poor diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat. Obesity may also contribute to high blood pressure. 4. What role does Medicare and Medicaid play in meeting the health care needs of the American public? Medicare and Medicaid are health programs in the US that are available for some groups of people who cannot afford private health care. Medicaid is a health program that provides health assistance to low income earners and needy groups. However there are conditions that must be ascertained before these low income earners qualify to receive Medicaid.

Medicare is an insurance program with contributions coming from private and public programs. Medicare is divided into Medicare Part A, Hospital Insurance and Medicare Part B, Supplementary Medical Insurance (Hahn, Payne, & Lucas, 2010). Part A caters for inpatient hospitalization, home care nursing, skilled nursing facility and hospice care for those who have a terminal illness to the aged (above 65), for disabled (for 24 months or more). Medicare is universal for those who qualify for Social Security Services or Railroad Retirement Fund Benefits.

Part B is availed to all US citizens older than 65 years as well as specified aliens also older than 65 years even when they do not qualify for Part A Medicare and provides physician’s services plus other services that maybe required by the physician such as laboratory tests, X-rays and physical therapy. Those who qualify for Part A are automatically eligible for Part B. Part B is optional and participants make a monthly contribution as a premium. Prescribed drugs, hearing aids, dental care and eyeglasses are an elective option for Medicare. . Examine the effects of nicotine on the body outside of the central nervous system. How does the influence of nicotine resemble that associated with the stress response? Nicotine increases the heart rate and blood pressure which is noticed immediately after it enters the body. It causes irregularities in breathing which constricts the arteries reducing the amount of blood and oxygen into the system. The heart responds by increasing the heart rate which overworks the heart and leads to increase in blood pressure.

Nicotine may also trigger the release of cholesterol into the blood system and help in blocking the arteries. Nicotine may also lead to an increase in plasminogen, a protein that increases blood clotting. This clotting may lead to blockage of the arteries. Nicotine may cause problems in the respiratory system. Nicotine inhaling may lead to chronic bronchitis and pulmonary disease leading to an increase in lung cancer. The nicotine will be directly transported to the lungs, irritating the respiratory system and causing inflammation. This leads to difficulties in breathing.

Other negative effects include an increase in metabolic rate that leads to reduction in weight. This becomes even more serious as smoking may lead to loss of appetite. These two factors combined may lead to anorexia. There is a similarity between nicotine’s response to the heart and stress response to the heart. Just like in smoking, stress leads to an increased in heart beat. When one is stressed, adrenaline is released. This adrenaline causes and increases in heart rate and an increase in blood pressure (Hahn, Payne, & Lucas, 2010).

References Burns, J. A. (2005). Balancing type 1 diabetes with the developmental tasks of young adulthood. Retrieved from http://stti. confex. com/stti/bcscience38/techprogram/paper_25602. htm Natural health Information Center (2005). Saturated fats. The cause of heart disease or the answer to the problem? Retrieved from http://www. natural-health-information-centre. com/saturated-fat. html Hahn, D. B. , Payne, W. A. , & Lucas, E. B. (2010). Focus on health 10th ed. ): New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

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