Drugs are classified into various categories primarily for the purpose convenience. All similar drugs, be it in terms of their mechanism of actions or their pharmacological action are grouped in a single category. This is done because drugs in the same category have similar pharmacodynamic and or pharmacokinetic properties. 2. Give a description of the actions of drugs in each category.
Drugs can be classified based on the action that they have on the body say drugs can be classified into CNS drugs that act on the central nervous system as antidepressants, antipsychotics, etc… similarly cardiovascular drugs show actions on the cardiovascular system such as antihypertensive, vasopressors, defibrillators, etc… 3. What is chemotherapy and which diseases are treated this way? Chemotherapy refers to the treatment of diseases by the use of chemicals.
Cancer is one of the diseases treated using chemotherapy and antineoplastic (anticancer) agents are usually referred to as chemotherapeutic agents. Certain antibiotics are also considered as chemotherapeutic agents. 4. Give examples of how contrast media are used to produce an image. Contrast media help in producing an image mainly by enhancing the contrast of structures or fluids within the body during medical imaging. For example iodine based contrast media is used to visualize vessels and changes in tissues on radiography.
Similarly barium sulfate is used in the imaging of digestive system. 5. Compare ionic and non-ionic contrast media. Ionic contrast media have a higher osmolarity as compared to the non ionic contrast media. Ionic contrast media are also found to have more side effects when compared with their non ionic counterparts. Drug Generic Name Classification Clinical Usage Adverse Effects Atropine Atropine Anticholinergics Antisialoagogue, to blunt the decreased pulse and blood pressure Dryness of the mouth, blurred vision, photophobia and tachycardia
Dexamethasone Dexamethasone Steroids Allergic states, dermatologic diseases, endocrine disorders, GI disorders, etc… Arrhythmias, bradycardia, convulsions, euphoria, headache, acne, allergic dermatitis, glaucoma, abdominal distention, nausea, allergy, edema etc… Adenosine Adenosine Antiarrhythmic Treatment of supraventricular tachycardia Cardiovascular facial flushing, dyspnea, chest pressure Neo-Synephrine Phenylephrine Vasopressor Used to maintain blood pressure in acute low blood pressure conditions Excitability; headache; nausea; restlessness; vomiting
Epinephrine Epinephrine Sympathomimetic Treatment of cardiac arrest, relief of bronchial asthma, relaxation of uterine musculature, allergic reactions Cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, tachycardia, anxiety, headache, restlessness, nausea, vomiting Lanoxin Digoxin Cardiac glycosides In treatment of congestive heart failure and in slowing heart rate in cases of chronic atrial fibrillation Cardiac and GI adverse reactions seen in higher doses
Benydryl Diphenhydramine Antihistamine Used to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever and other types of allergy Urticaria, anaphylactic shock, hypotension, anemia, sedation, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Glucagon Glucagon Glucose elevating agent Treatment of severe hypoglycemic reactions in diabetic patients, also used as a diagnostic aid Transient increase in BP and pulse rate, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, generalized allergic reactions
Vasopressin 8-Arginine-Vasopressin Posterior pituitary hormone Treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus; prevention and treatment of postoperative abdominal distention Angina, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, gas, gangrene, tissue necrosis, allergic reactions Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin Vasodilator Prevention and treatment of angina pectoris Crescendo angina, hypotension, palpitations, asthenia, dizziness, headache, allergic reactions, pharyngitis, abdominal pain, dyspnea
Dopamine Dopamine Vasopressor Trauma, endotoxic septicemia, surgery and renal failure Tachycardia, anginal pain, palpitation, hypotension, vasoconstriction, hypertension, headache, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea References Drugs. com. (n. d. ). Retrieved June 1, 2009, from Drugs. com: http://www. drugs. com/ Rxlist. (n. d. ). Retrieved June 1, 2009, from Rxlist: http://www. rxlist. com/script/main/hp. asp Wikipedia. (2009, May 27). Chemotherapy. Retrieved June 1, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Chemotherapy