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Oral Contraceptive

The development of Oral Contraceptive pills is significant in terms of birth control and/or population control. It serves to be one of the most effective ways to limit birth without adhering to abortion or ligation (Watkins, 1998). It is safe because it does not include inserting anything artificial to the woman’s body. To be able to clearly understand how Oral Contraceptives work, it is of primary importance that one will look into the process that it concerns or affects. It must be quite obvious that t has a lot to do with the female reproductive organ and the ovulation process. Every month a woman ovulates resulting to the release of an egg. The egg travels through the fallopian tube as the uterus walls becomes thicker preparing for the possible pregnancy. Pregnancy happens when a sperm manages to reach the egg and fertilize it (, 2008). However if fertilization fails, the uterine walls are shed away along with the unfertilized egg, a process which is known as menstruation. Oral Contraception works by supplying the hormones which are responsible for ovulation, namely, estrogen and progesterone.

Although Oral contraceptives do not guarantee 100% it is highly effective since it controls the hormones and ovulation itself. Nonetheless there are still problems that arise because of the improper formulation of Oral Contraceptives. According to the Institute of Medicine in the United States, the estrogen levels of Oral Contraceptives should not go any further from 50 ug. It seems that there are complications that result from higher dosages of estrogen through the years.

According to, the use of Oral Contraceptives gives woman the freedom to engage or perform sexual relations without the fear or danger of getting pregnant. It also leads to a more regular menstrual cycle, less pain during menstruation and a lesser amount of blood flow, along with visible reduction of the development of acne it also helps to lessen the risk of ovarian cancer and the development of benign breast cancer. Nonetheless, Oral Contraceptives do have side effects such as bleeding which is due to the sudden change in the supply of hormones, change in weight, chloasma or dark spots appearing on the face, nausea, breast tenderness, sharp chest pains and headaches, these last from one to three months depending on the hormonal change received by the user (Drife, 1996). Thus, although Oral Contraceptives are considered as technological advancement and has many advantages, these must be taken with caution and strict monitoring of a doctor.

Oral Contraception answers the problems of overpopulation. It is of common knowledge that the world experiences a sudden population boom after World War II, this is the main reason why several oral contraceptives were developed. However, since certain formulations of Oral Contraceptives includes high amount of carcinogens, several reformulations and studies were made to be able to be correct he mistakes (R. D. Mann)..

Before the development of Oral Contraceptives condom is the most effective and economical means of preventing unwanted pregnancies. Nonetheless, defects in condoms make it unreliable for most people. The natural methods also prove ineffectual since there are women who have irregular menstrual cycle and since the cycle is highly affected by hormones which are also affected by diet, stress, health and exercise (David, C. 2003).

The effect of Oral Contraceptive in the society is mainly encouragement to perform sexual action and protection from unwanted pregnancies. As people turns more and more practical and less and less religious, sex becomes a type of goods and/or service that can be marketed. With the gap between the rich and the poor becoming greater each day so as the ways to earn a living which more or less leads to prostitution that leads to unwanted pregnancies and abortions (Rosenthal, S., 1990) .

With these in mind, the development of Oral Contraceptives serves the purpose of controlling population with the aim of creating a better future. It also answers two main moral problems that involves future generation vis a vis unwanted pregnancies and abortions, through prevention. The idea that triggers the development of Oral Contraceptives is the monthly cycle that woman undergo. Along with the discovery of the functions of hormones is the goal of reducing population. However, the process of arriving to the desired result is not easy for there have been several changes in the formulation of the pills. Depending on the user, it has side effects which last for about three months. Oral Contraceptives are technological advancement that helps control birth by preventing unwanted pregnancies and abortions.

Works Cited, Oral Contraception. Retrieved on April 22, 2008, from

David, C., Rudolph’s Pediatrics.2003.

Drife, J. The Benefits and Risk of Contraceptives Today. 1996.

Institute of Medicine. Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer. 1991, p. 143.

Mann, R.D., Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer. 1990

Rosenthal. S. The Gynecological Sourcebook. 1990.

Watkins, E.S. On the Pill: A Social History of Contraceptives, 1950-1970. 1998.


It is an updated online guide to products and/or faqs regarding contraception or birth control. It includes explanations that will enable the readers to understand how certain contraception works. The site was developed by Ny Organon which is now part of  Schering-Plough which are manufacturers and distributors of medicines and contraceptives. Unlike the other works cited in this paper, provides the most concise and brief explanation regarding how Oral Contraceptives works.

David, C.

This book  discuss about clarifying and expanding the ideas created by Abrahan Rudolh. The work concentrated mainly on how Contraceptives affects society most specifically the way that they are marketed to the adolescents.

Drife, J.

The book focuses on the primary risk and benefits of Oral Contraceptives in today’s world. The intended audience seems to be young adults or Contraceptive enthusiasts. This book helps me understand more about the risk of using oral contraceptives. It is helpful in identifying which risk or signs and symptoms are harmful or dangerous.

Institute of Medicine (U.S.)

The most reliable among the sources. It discusses the amount of hormones and other chemicals in the pill/s which can be considered as dangerous. It provides a short list of contraceptives along with the percentage of the hormonal content. It also describes what side effect might result with the excess of the hormones.

Mann, R.

This book relates Oral Contraeptives with the rise of breast Cancer. Nevertheless, since it was written in 1990, I believe that most part of the book was outdated. However, what is ofimportancein this book is the established connection between breast cancer and hormonal imbalance which might result from Oral Contraceptives.

Rosenthal, S.

Her book is full of information with respect to gynecology. Her work on oral contraception illuminates other methods of birth control which are natural and can be use instead of Oral Contraceptives especially if the drug is causing any problems or is not suitable to the user’s body chemistry.

Watkins, E. S.

This book discussed the different formulations of Contraceptive pills which might resolve the problems that it poses. It also covers other methods of birth control and the effectiveness of the pill. It tries to elaborate on how the pill was accepted during the formative years. It also tries to answer the questions about oral contraceptives.


Oral Contraception

I.                   Development of Oral Contraception

A.    Problem with Population

B.     The Idea that comes from Ovulation cycle.

C.     The functions of Hormones

II.                Costs and Benefits of Oral Contraception

A.    Effectiveness and Proper Formulation

B.     Benefits and Side Effects

III.             Change in the Society

A.    Before Oral Contraception

B.     Effects of its use

IV. Conclusion

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