Meaning: Holistic approach to patient care incorporates the mental, emotional, physical and spiritual health of the individual. It explores the connection between mind, body, spirit and environment. Holistic healing includes a wide range of therapies with inherently complex philosophies about the prevention and treatment of illness. Questions still exist as to the safety of complementary and alternative medicine (otherwise known as CAM), which are an integral part of holistic healing and whether they really heal the conditions and diseases they are treating .
Holistic Therapies The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) defines complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as “a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products not presently considered to be a part of conventional medicine. ” According to NCCAM, there does exist traditional scientific evidence as to the effectiveness of CAM therapies, but many questions still loom as to the validity of CAM therapies by conventional scientific studies.
CAM therapies are continually evolving as certain treatments are proven safe and effective and incorporated in conventional health care, changing the way doctors approach illness (Holistic Treatment) Objective of holistic treatment: The objective of holistic treatment is to treat the main illness by boosting the immune system, increasing overall health. The theory further asserts that this will also affect secondary illnesses without treatment due to the strengthened immune system. Holistic therapy attempts to alleviate the underlying causes of disease.
The holistic approach is a specific holistic treatment plan for each patient according to his or her individual needs. These therapies go beyond standard care for illness. The Holistic Approach: According to The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, there are three standard approaches to holistic care:
* Complementary medicine, which includes conventional medical treatment in conjunction with holistic therapies; * Alternative medicine, which is used in the place of conventional treatment; and * Integrative medicine, which combines mainstream medical therapy with holistic treatments for which there does exist some substantial scientific evidence as to the safety and effectiveness of the holistic approach .
5 main categories of holistic approach The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine defines holistic therapies into five major categories. 1. Alternative medicine: complete medical systems built upon theory and practice. Many of these systems were developed separate from and earlier than many standard medical approaches use in the U. S.
This includes homeopathic and naturopathic medicine. Non-western systems include traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda . 2. MInd-body interventions: mind-body medicine uses many techniques to increase the mind’s ability to affect physical healing. Techniques of which that are now main stream include patient support groups and cognitive behavioral therapy. Other mind-body therapies include meditation, prayer, mental healing, and therapies for creative outlets such as art, music, or dance . 3. Biologically-based therapies: uses substance found in nature such as herbs, foods, and vitamins.
These therapies have not yet been proven scientifically . Manipulative and body-based methods: uses manipulation and/or movement of one or more body parts. Examples include: chiropractics, osteopathic manipulation, and massage . 4. Energy therapies: There are two types of energy therapy; biofield therapies and bio electromagnetic therapies. a. Biofield therapy manipulates the purported energy fields that surround the body by applying pressure and or manipulating the body by placing hands in or through these energy fields.
Examples include: reiki and therapeutic touch. b. Bioelectromagnetic therapy includes the unconventional use of electromagnetic fields such as: pulse fields, magnetic fields, alternating current, and direct current fields . Some of the practices of alternative holistic health include, but are not limited to: •Natural diet and herbal remedies •Nutritional supplements •Exercise •Relaxation •psycho-spiritual counseling •Meditation •Breathing exercises •Acupuncture •Homeopathy •Massage therapy – including Chi Nei Tsang
The Essentials of Holistic Health Life force energy: The source of human life comes from an integrated and intelligent energy known as life force energy, which sustains the life of body organs, cells, and tissues, as well as supports the spiritual entity of the soul. This invisible life force energy flows freely throughout the body to give an individual not only health and vitality by efficiently transporting oxygen and nutrients to different parts of the body, but also an expression of the inner self.
The flow of this life-giving energy follows an organized pattern by way of meridians connecting different parts of the human body. This life force energy has different names for different cultures: the Chinese call it qi; the Japanese, lei; the Hindus, prana; and the Greeks, pneuma. But they all mean the same thing: the essence of life. Any blockage or diminution of life force energy may result in reduction in oxygen supply, deficiency in nutrients intake, and accumulation of waste products produced, and hence the beginning of degeneration and disease.
Disease symptoms are only signs of diminution of life force energy within the body. Robert S. Ivker,
D. O. , past president of the American Holistic Medical Association said “the unlimited and unimpeded free flow of life force energy throughout your body, mind, and spirit” has the capacity to bring about self-healing, which is fundamental to holistic health. Balance and harmony Holistic health is a manifestation of internal balance and harmony in the human body, which is but a microcosm of nature.
Life force energy flows optimally in a state of balance and harmony, expressed in equilibrium of tensions between expansion and contraction. A contraction in one part has to be followed by an expansion in another, just as anything that goes up must also come down—this is just the law of nature. To illustrate, high blood pressure is a result of extreme expansions and contractions of arteries in certain parts of the body, causing irreparable damage to heart muscles. Chinese medicine, for example, is based on the philosophy of balance and harmony, expressed in yin and yang.
In the symbol, the small black circle within the white shows that yin is always within the white yang; likewise, the small white circle within the black shows that yang is always within the black yin. In other words, all things are both yin and yang simultaneously. The concept of balance and harmony of life force energy–yin and yang–is central to the Chinese healing methods that use foods and herbs as medicine. In Chinese healing, disease is seen as the result of imbalance of qi (positive life energy) in the body, which is essentially a reflection of the lack of balance and harmony between yin and yang.
Control and restrain In Chinese health, the balance and harmony of yin and yang is further governed by the Five Elements (wood, fire, earth, metal, water), also known as “Wu Xing” (the Five Processes), representing the cycles of nature, as well as corresponding to the five body organs (heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, spleen). The Five Elements control and restrain one another: fire controls metal, which controls wood, which controls earth, which controls water, which controls fire.
They are inter-dependent on one another for existence in the form of a cycle of nature: water nourishes trees or wood, without which there will be no fire, and without fire, there will be no earth, and without earth, there will be no metal, and without metal, there will be no liquefaction, generating no water, thereby forming a continuous controlling and restraining cycle, which balances and harmonizes everything, including your health, for natural health and healing. To illustrate: In nature, fire melts metal.
Likewise, the blood of your heart controls the functioning of your lungs. In nature, metal (a blade) cuts wood. Likewise, your lungs control the blood gathered by your liver. In nature; wood breaks up earth through its roots. Likewise, your liver controls the digestive functions of your spleen. In nature, earth dams water. Likewise, your spleen controls your kidney’s ability to concentrate and retain moisture. In nature, water puts out fire. Likewise, the essence of your kidneys controls the fire of your heart.
The natural inter-restrain puts each of the Five Elements under control, just as the appropriate functioning of one organ puts the other organs under control and restrain for balance and harmony, thereby instrumental in contributing to holistic health. Principles of Holistic Medicine Search for the underlying causes of disease Inherent self-healing capacity and disease resistance immunity hold the key to the absence or presence of disease. In other words, knowing why you are vulnerable to a disease or disorder may heal you from that affliction.
According to a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 40 percent of hypertensive patients could do without their medications when they gave up smoking, limited alcohol consumption, reduced sodium intake, and exercised moderately. Therefore, understanding the causes of disease can bring about not only the prevention but also a cure of a disease. Prevention better than cure Unlike conventional Western medicine, which focuses on reducing and mitigating disease symptoms, holistic medicine emphasizes the importance of prevention, rather than the cure, through lifestyle changes, such as, nutrition and exercise.
Concept of the whole person Disease is looked upon as manifestation of a dysfunction of the whole person, not just an isolated event. For example, cataract is more than a disease of the eye. Therefore, lens implant surgery is not a long-term solution. Instead, the whole person has to be addressed, such as nutrition therapy, especially the need of antioxidants supplementation, smoking cessation, avoidance of strong sunlight, and regular exercise. Treating the whole person can significantly reduce cataract by as much as 70 percent, according to a study. Quality doctor-patient relationship
The doctor-patient relationship has a great impact on the outcome of a disease. Quality relationship enhances healing through confidence, enthusiasm, and trust. To illustrate, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, was said to have tasted the urine of his patients in order to assess the conditions of his patients. Opportunity for learning Disease is looked upon as a learning opportunity. Life is an ongoing learning experience, including health and wellness. The objective is to improve the quality of life in the brief lifespan. Positive attitude According to Dr. Robert Anderson, M. D.
, a founding member of the American Holistic Medical Association, “unconditional love, released through the act of forgiveness, is the most important tool for self-empowerment, development of positive attitudes, and optimism, all of which contribute to better therapeutic outcomes. “Remember, optimal health embraces all aspects of the human experience. Attributes of the Individual Holistic health is the pursuit of the highest qualities of the physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual aspects of the human experience in order to initiate holistic healing to recover from any disease or disorder. Is holistic health for everyone?
Almost anyone can pursue holistic health. But for the individual to eventually embrace holistic health, he or she must have the following attributes: Intent to heal The intent to heal is expressed in a deep desire to improve health in order to heal. That begins with self-awareness. That is, you must, first of all, become aware of the need for living for life to the fullest. If you are already content with the life you are living at the present moment, you will continue with your current lifestyle patterns. If, on the other hand, you are dissatisfied, you will have to make meaningful changes in your life.
So, it has to do with self-awareness of the intent to heal. Self-responsibility Life is full of choices, and holistic health is simply a choice. You are responsible for your life. Once you decide that the power to change is well within you, almost anything can happen. But if you hand over your responsibility for your health and well-being to the professionals, you cannot and will not live your life to the fullest. Why? It is because others cannot live your life for you; given that life is about choices, nobody can make those life choices for you, and, above all, no one can establish balance and harmony in your life.
Take Control of Your Health and Escape the Sickness Industry Take Control of Your Health and Escape the Sickness Industry contains well-researched and proven-effective alternatives to expensive medications and surgical procedures, as well as information on how to distinguish between truths and myths, such as some commonly held “beliefs” and even maladies which are nothing more than the inventions of marketing experts to help promote and sell more products to the gullible public. Self-acceptance Self-acceptance is as important as self-responsibility in holistic health.
You must accept yourself for what and who you are. Never strive to become the someone else that you are not. Mental anguish impairs holistic health. Self -empowerment Empower yourself with knowledge and information so that you may have the wisdom to discern the truths from the myths about health and healing. For example, there is a growing body of evidence showing that antibiotics and other pharmaceutical drugs weaken the body’s immune system, and thus increases the susceptibility to illness over the long haul. According to Buddha, ignorance is the source of human miseries.
Knowledge holds the key to holistic health and healing. According to a research study at Purdue University by Mohan J. Dutta-Bergman, published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, “individuals who searched for health information on the Internet were indeed more likely to be health-oriented than those who did not. Consumers who sought out medical information on the Internet reported higher levels of health-information orientation and healthy activities, as well as stronger health beliefs than those who did not search for medical news on the Internet.
” Words of Wisdom Health is a condition of wholeness, a condition in which the body, the mind, and the soul direct your life in equal proportion, so that there is balance and harmony in all aspects of your human experience. ADVANTAGES: Below you can find several reasons in favour of holistic medicine over the conventional approach. 1. Holistic medicine targets the root cause of the illness while conventional medicine is trying to eliminate the symptoms without elimination the reason. 2. It is absolutely safe to undertake many holistic methods the same time.
Cancer patients, for example, may have massage every week, while using magnet therapy and changing their diet plan. Holistic methods don’t contraindicate with one another. 3. Holistic medicine uses the body natural capacity to heal. You can avoid sicknesses if you avoid processed food and particular herbs. You should undertake regular oxygen therapy in order to help the body heal faster and better. 4. Holistic remedies are absolutely safe and they don’t cause any side effects. They are not dangerous and can’t threaten your life or health.
As we know, medications and surgery may cause both side effects and death. 5. The holistic approach is really effective. It is obvious that the same method may not work for the different people even if they have the same condition. But holistic practitioners know how to look for the root of the disease and how to find the perfect solution for each case. Once the solution is found, the healing process becomes faster. 6 Holistic medicine doesn’t involve any extra risk. The medication used in traditional medicine may cause addition but there is no such danger with holistic remedies.
7. Holistic medicine is absolutely safe for pregnant women or mothers who are breastfeeding. It is a well-known fact that pregnant women are not recommended to take any drugs. However, pregnant and breastfeeding women can receive acupuncture, for examples, as it doesn’t threaten the foetus or the infant. PHYSICAL: As a fitness facility, you’ve pretty much got this area covered. Between your equipment and exercise classes, you presently offer clients countless opportunities to improve physical health.
That being said, you may want to consider offering additional services, such as post rehabilitation programs and regular screenings. For example, the Robert Wood Johnson Hamilton Center for Health ; Wellness, located in Mercerville, New Jersey, offers rehabilitation services, a staff of nurse educators, a health library with computer access and a healthy-cooking kitchen . Screenings are also essential in the prevention of many diseases, so get your clients off to a great start by regularly offering screening events.
They can include blood pressure assessments, cholesterol testing, bone density scans . . . you name it. To obtain information on setting up screenings, contact local chapters of nonprofit organizations like the American Heart Association and the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Emotional/Spiritual People who are emotionally and spiritually healthy are in control of their thoughts and behaviours, feel good about themselves and keep problems in perspective. This type of mental fortitude goes a long way in boosting one’s overall quality of life.
Here are several ideas for how you can foster this inner strength at your facility. Help Clients Relieve Stress. Stress is common in today’s society and plays a significant role in negatively impacting emotional health. By offering stress management workshops, you can be a part of the solution. In addition, consider designating a room or specific area as your relaxation section. Set up couches for rest, play soft music as opposed to the upbeat music played throughout the rest of the facility and offer helpful books and other tools that alleviate stress.
This may encourage busy people to slow down and relish a much-needed break. The Wellness/ Recreation Center at the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls is an excellent example of a facility that helps clients reduce stress. It provides a wellness resource room featuring stress-reducing items like recliners, drum sticks, massage gadgets and even Play-Doh. Consider Other Options. In addition to these services, simple events like nature walks, outdoor picnics and meditation classes can give members the emotional and spiritual boost that they need.
Intellectual The more your clients comprehend wellness concepts and facts, the more empowered they are to take charge of their overall well-being. Be their resource for this information. Present Frequent Educational Events. Consider inviting speakers on a variety of health and medical topics. A program like this can be profitable for your business and offer a stimulating intellectual experience for attendees. By opening the event to both members and non members, you introduce potential future customers to your facility.
In addition to speaker events, you can conduct cooking demonstrations, book reviews of recent health-related publications and sport-specific presentations. Provide Free Handouts. Another simple, inexpensive way to offer knowledge to your clients is to give out free handouts on wellness topics, including body image, heart rate, sports injury prevention and the body-mind connection. Create your own handouts, photocopy those at the back of IDEA Fitness Journal . Educate Clients About Nutrition. An often overlooked area of knowledge is nutrition.
Your facility can inform clients about this topic by hiring a registered dietitian to offer one-on-one consultations, answer questions and set up individualized diet programs . Members can either pay a fee for these services or pay more for general membership but get complementary services from the dietitian. Additionally, you can organize group classes on nutrition basics, as well as targeted classes, such as nutrition for weight loss, for new mothers or for marathon runners. Lastly, offering legitimate information regarding diet supplements and sports drinks is a value-added service for your clients.
Many businesses offer a wall of sports drinks and supplements with little accompanying education. With the supplement industry awash with conflicting information and claims, your members can find themselves confused or, even worse, deceived. Simple handouts or informative sessions make a significant difference in members’ understanding of these dietary products and establish your facility as a trusted source. Social Social support is essential for living a healthy life and achieving goals. Your facility can provide emotional support by establishing social networks and friendships among members.
Foster a sense of group belonging by creating clubs within your facility, hosting social events and offering unique programs and events that bring people together. The concept of creating smaller clubs within a fitness business is not new, but you can invent some new twists. Walking clubs and book clubs are popular, but use your imagination to come up with innovative ideas. The Fitness Edge, with locations throughout Connecticut, offers a “Backyard Boot Camp” program in which members gather a group of friends to form their own little club.
Some of the facility’s trainers then lead an effective, fun exercise program for 6 weeks at one member’s home. Social events can also bring members together. Events such as member appreciation dinners, humorous workshops or group outings help people get to know one another outside of the gym environment. Another creative way to assemble members is to take advantage of national health observance themes to sponsor health promotion events, stimulate awareness of health risks and focus on disease prevention. The U. S.
Department of Health and Human Services, along with other nonprofit agencies, has designated each month of the year as a time to pay attentain conditions. Hosting monthly events with vendors, speakers and entertainment will not only bring people together but also generate ancillary revenue. Services for the Whole Person Consumers are now making the connection between fitness, health and wellness services. Therefore, motivation for joining a fitness facility has migrated from individuals who want a better physical appearance to those interested in overall well-being.
Your facility can meet this need—enriching people’s lives and putting the “health” back in “health club. ” Holistic Medicine Probably, by now you have understood the benefits of holistic medicine over the traditional methods of diagnosis and treatment. Holistic medicine has numerous advantages: it accepts the human as a combination of three elements than should function together as a whole. These three elements are the human body, mind and spirit. If any of them doesn’t work properly, numerous imbalances can occur and these imbalances are the reason for diseases.
The risk of diseases is higher when the capacity of the immune system to deal with health problems is reduced. Holistic medicines works to find the main reason that cause the imbalances. The reason may be hidden in your way of living, or in the environment around you. The holistic approach uses its knowledge to increase the body’s natural healing ability. Holistic physicians work together with the patients in order to crease the perfect treatment program and to help you restore you health. Holistic medicine not only deals with the symptoms of a particular disease, but with the illness itself.
An essential idea of holistic medicine is that each individual is responsible for his or her own health. If we don’t care of ourselves, no one else would do it. So we need to change our lives, we need to get proper nutrition and avoid stress in order to stay healthy. Holistic medicine will help you solve all your health problems permanently and will give all the answers you may have. In addition, the holistic approach is really effective and absolutely safe. Turn to holistic medicine and your body, mind and spirit will be grateful to you.
Treatment for different diseases through holistic approach: HOLISTIC HIV TREATMENT- Treatment of HIV Using holistic methods is Holistic HIV treatment. The Holistic HIV treatment has own directive rather than others. In this method the virus will be ousted out of body using strong bio-magnetic force and mean time by using herbal remedies to boost immune system of the patient for the speedy cure. Herbals will catalyze the action of Bio magnetic force by creating powerful medium of immunity enhancement in shortest possible time. What is Holistic HIV treatment meant for?
– This treatment is a holistic treatment with A bio Magnetic Device and herbal medicines. No side effects or chemicals in side. This s purely ethical and most successful treatment in HIV history. The Bio Magnetic Device is very simple to use as well as Medicines are very easy to use too. What is the procedure of action of treatment? – Actually this Bio Magnetic Device will create a negative charge in human cells so that a bio magnetic field will be formed which will repel and push out all foreign bodies including HIV virus from body through excretion.
Result will be cleaning of the body from virus etc. Herbal medicines will help that device for this. What will be result-? -Soon after the Bio Magnetic Device and medicines start functioning your Body weight will be up and Viral count will come down while CD4 will be back to normal. All your secondary problems will go and you will be healthy again as normal as ever. How can you know you are cured? -Your CD4 count will be normal and HIV Cultural test and P24 Antigen test will show there are no HIV viruses in body. So whole HIV Viruses will be ousted of the body.
Your secondary problems will go you will get back weight and all will be good for you soon. This will indicate you are cured of the disease. Is there any restrictions? – Listen there are small restrictions those any one can follow. No big issues in them. You can live nicer way to live longer. that is a fact. THE ACTION OF THE TREATMENT- Stage1- Day 1St TO 50 Days- This stage the action of HIV- viral RNA and several copies of reverse transcriptase will be stopped due to the negative charge of the cell- This action is like the anti-retrovirus action of Phospho nylmethoxyethyl.
But the negative charge will virtually repel the negatively charged Glycoprotein -gp 120 protein- husk of the HI Virus type 1 and 2. This protein is being used by HIV to attach to CD4 And CD8- If the negative charged protein is repelled then the HIV-Virus- will lose the grip on CD4 and CD8 – And due the repelling properties of this gp 120 against the negative charged cell membrane HIV will lose its all attachments as well as resources to reproduce through CD4. HIV then can’t complete the life cycle, so will be matured fast then will lose the momentum due to the break in the life cycle.
They will be half dead as inactive. Then the continued negative charge will oust them through excretion. In other cases- all cell membranes will be negative- and will start to repel the HIV- Virus . In short the virus will never find a place to stay in body- Soon will be ousted out in half dead and immobilize manner as its RNA will be destroyed due to the delay in process of reverse transcriptase Obviously one CD4 will never repel another CD4 or CD8 or other cells of body- As body as a protein called Interferon- The communication between cells will be done through that protein.
So the repelling effect will be nullified. INDIA CASE STUDY- With in FIRST 50 days- we find 75% of virus will be immobilized- while with in next 30 TO 50 days other 25% virus also will be ousted out. – Case Tested in 10 fresh HIV cases (April to July- 2005 in India )- By Doctor R-kumar Stage2- 50 To 100 Days – The HIV- Will be ousted out completely from body- Then the Immune system will be restored- The damaged CD4 And CD8 cells will be dissolved and new CD4 or CD8 will be formed. Herbals are to be used for this- Mean time vital organs will be intact of the left over of the ultimate war between HIV and human immune system.
AFTER 100 DAYS- After treatment is over- 100 days are over- The Patient can be subjected to P24 Core protein Tests to find HIV Virus- Or Use HIV Culture tests to isolate virus- and can find them negative. Antibodies will continue in body -They will not be ousted and will show positive to antibody tests. Like Smallpox antibodies in human body, HIV- Antibody can also be seen even with out HIV-Virus- in that human body.
In some cases (up to 80% cases) we find Antibodies are disappearing after a year or so. How The Patient will feel- After 30 days of use you can feel your general HIV symptoms are very much reduced. You will start to gain weight and also your lose motion or itching etc will be cured or very much reduced. And in 70 to 100 days all these symptoms will be completely gone. After 70 days you feel your CD4 come up and up.. with more healthy CD4 and CD8 cells will replace the damaged cells ( In AVR therapy these cells will be damaged). You can check the CD4 count to understand how much you have progressed.
After 100 days- Go and check the P24 Antigen core protein for HIV and will find NEGATIVE . Also can perform HIV Culture tests that isolated HIV- Virus- and you will find that is negative or no HIV- Virus- you will find in the body. Through all these ways you can feel the effect of cure- You can feel how much you are cured and thing like that. After 100 days you can live like a normal man- NO AVR or any other medicines or treatment will be required then on words- You must not use AVR or any HIV related medicines while you take this treatment- That is a must. Holistic Treatment for Lung Cancer.
Holistic treatment for lung cancer involves the treatment of the whole person. This includes, but is not limited to, nutritional therapies, hydrotherapies, naturopathic treatments, homeopathic and in some cases traditional treatments in conjunction with holistic therapies. Treatment options vary according to the stages of lung cancer. Homeopathy Homeopathic lung cancer treatments include the use of CANcore 1 ; 2, both of these penetrate the cancerous cell quickly. Zeolite Enhanced-Now with DHQ also enters the cancerous cell, killing it quickly, and Quantum X is an energy healer.
Ayurveda Pippali (Piper longum) and Hirak Rasayan are two of many Ayurveda herbs used in the holistic treatment of lung cancer. Other herbs are used with these to help purify the blood, stimulate detoxification of the lymphatic system and support the immune system. Chinese Chinese holistic lung cancer treatments include acupressure, acupuncture and massage of the lymphatic system. Herbal treatments also support the body in healing and elimination of toxins. Chinese anti-cancer herbs include Rei Shi mushrooms, Lu Feng Fang, Long Kui Solanum, Ban Zhi Lian Scutellaria and Dong Ling Cao Rabdosime Rubescentis.
Herbal Essiac was made famous by nurse Rene Caisse, who reversed her last name to give this herb mix a label. It is an herbal mix created by the Canadian Ojibway Indians, consisting of burdock root, slippery elm bark, sheep sorrel and Indian rhubarb root. In South America, doctors give taheebo (pau d’arco) to their cancer patients with instructions on creating a healing diet. Meditation Holistic treatments of lung cancer include the use of aromatherapies with essential oils to help calm the sufferer (in conjunction with meditative practices).
Imagery is used frequently in a guided meditation to help the patient create a healthier attitude about the illness. Stress reduction practices are used frequently in conjunction with all therapies listed here. Cautions When using herbal remedies, ensure you do not have allergies to the herbs. Always consult with a naturopathic or alternative practitioner to ensure proper diagnosis and treatments. This list is not inclusive and is meant to be informative only. Holistic Treatment for Stro.