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Clinical Evaluation –“Dietary Intake of Young Twins: Nature or Nurture? ” The scientific article aimed towards the early childhood dieting. Studies tested the prediction of the diet was determined primarily on the environment instead of genetics from their parents. 2402 pairs of 21 month old twins were recruited as participants in the Gemini study by using birth registration data for all twins in England and Wales from March to December 2007.

1216 of the twins were available to have their dietary diaries collected. It was broken down to 384 monozygotic and 832 dizygotic pairs after exclusions. It was known fact that contributions of genetic and environmental analysis were the main factors to population variation in intake. Statistics showed that children at 21 months were consuming small portions of family foods which were being divided from the shared environment and genetic factors of the dietary intake variation.

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It comes up with the question, whether the environment or heritability has a major impact on how children intakes food, and if these circumstances are prominent, how can it be geared towards dietary diaries of specific nutrients that are being put into their bodies which can have an effect on certain risk factors including obesity and chronic diseases. Within the experiment, parents were asked whether their twins were fraternal or identical.

In this case, fraternal twins were classified as dizygotic while the identical twins were being referred as the zygosity. These parents had to complete a 20-item questionnaire which also helped established the samples of DNA to 311 pairs of twins weren’t able to be classified by the responses of the questionnaire. As a result, the questionnaire became 100% accurate for the zygosity allocation within 81 pairs of random samples where were test for DNA in the Gemini study sample.

Throughout the process, parents had to record food and drink intakes for both children between November 2008 and August 2009 for their 21 month old twins. Cases showed of the 2714 diaries submitted those included only 1 recorded day of intake were excluded due a speculation of the representative not having a habitual diet. The diaries completed from children between the defined age of 17-28 month old were excluded 2 diaries from older children while diaries of twins with the unknown zygosity were excluded which left the remaining 2432 twins for analysis.

The observation of demographics were characterized by the child’s sex, the mother’s ethnic origin, household socioeconomic status (SES), age of the mother at the twins’ birth, and BMI of the mother all being derived from the questionnaires at the baseline. The main goal for the study was to model heritability and environmental effects which relied on the comparison of the concordance between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs who expressed a given trait.

Analyses were accommodated upon age and sex standardized residual scores of average daily energy, macronutrient, and food intakes in order to be accountable for the exact correlation between age and sex of identical twins since their stats can represent the shared environment effect. Elements of the common immediate environment to both twins; whether it being the parental intake and feeding styles, the availability of foods at home, or foods that are offered to the children would mostly like be the primary principle factors of dietary intake at this current age, regardless of some broader determinants including SES and ethnicity.

Therefore, it’s the parents’ purpose in being responsible in providing the foods by which their children at this age would probably express their preferences of food even though they could determine the amount of food that’s offered. According to the studies shown, the evidence were similar to findings of a study that recruited 396 twins aged 7 years to determine the BMI of food intake, in whom the highest heritability estimate turned out to be 18%. Though the current study was geared more towards a minimal contribution of genetics, the herebility estimates were considerably varied by the food group and the sex of the 7 year olds.

However when looking into the food intake by each sex, it is strongly evident that shared environment was the main driver of the intake in girls whereas the genetic predisposition played a stronger lucrative role in boys. Rendering to studies shown within the article, the ‘magnitude of the significant heritability components for both sexes in the study in 7 year olds was similar to those reported in adult studies, which have shown dietary traits including energy consumption, specific dietary pattern, and food of individual nutrient intakes to be moderately heritable.

’ Either how they put it, the amount of food intake between each sex would be different because it is a known fact that boys tend to intake foods depending on the factor of genetics or environment more than girls regardless of the studies of between the pairs of twins comparing to the 7 year olds. This article based upon the studies of the children and their intake is recognized to being a scientific article rather than a pseudoscience.

The article itself gives accurate information about the analyses of the characteristics between the participants who were responding to the dietary diaries and the total amount of representatives within the Gemini study. The authors who came up with the experiment collected a great amount of data especially since they recruited many pairs of twins from numerous varieties to make the experiment work and become a major success.

In addition, the authors were able to execute the main spectrum of the hypothesis by backing it up with valuable information by comparing the current studies of the twin 21 month old intakes with older children even adult studies, which was able to show how the amount of food intake between each sex can develop overtime regardless of the dependents that surface around this natural phenomena. The research that was conducted in correspondence to the numerous of studies shown made, this experiment become very profound and exceptional for anyone to implied to.

Especially since the individuals who conducted the experiment were able to recruit a vast majority of participants who were willing to use their ability in figuring out a common cause; which affected the way a child intakes food. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Pimpin, Laura Ambrosini, Gina L Llewellyn, Laura Johnson Clare H, Jaarsveld, Cornelia HM van Jebb, Susan A and Wardle Jane. Dietary Intake of Young Twins: Nature or Nurture? Cambridge, United Kingdom. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

2013. Web. The authors conducted an experiment in conjunction with funding from the United Kingdom Research Council and the Cancer Research United Kingdom by which the study tested the hypothesis that diet in early childhood primarily is determined by the environment instead of heritability factors. The study recruited 2402 families of twins aged 21 month old to partake in a classic twin design that used 3-d dietary data collected from the Gemini cohort.

Only 1216 twins had dietary diaries available after exclusions. Certain intakes of macronutrients, food, and beverages were estimated along with the twin analyses which quantified the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to population variation in intake. The experiment itself was straightforward, with a good amount of statistics to back up the hypothesis as well as the result by which

children at a young age can consume small portions of wide variety of family foods. The shared environment was primarily dominant throughout the studies, contribution between 66% and 97% while genetic factors estimated between 4% and 18% of dietary intake variation. Therefore, shared environments have a high influence on the dietary intake of children (whether being a twin of same-sex or opposite) bases upon the home food environment and potential parental behaviors.

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