Nutrients: the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function. Nutrition: how food nourishes and influences our bodies and our health. Wellness: the absence of disease; physical, emotional and spiritual health. Components of wellness are nutrition and physical activity. Processes: Consumption, Digestion, Absorption, Metabolism, Storage and Excretion. Deficiency Diseases: scurvy – Vitamin C, goiter – Iodine, Rickets for Vitamin D – Know 6 essential nutrients – Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Water, Vitamins & Minerals – Organic nutrients vs.
Inorganic nutrients – Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as dietary minerals,water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients. – Macro vs. micronutrients – macronutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, fats & water while micronutrients are vitamins and minerals. – Energy content of macro-nutrients – Carbohydrates – 4kcal/g- Primary source of fuel for the body especially for the brain, CNS and RBC’s. require glucose for they are not synthesized by the body, unable to produce cellular respiration, found in grains, wheat, rice, legumes (beans), vegetables, fruits, seeds and nuts and milk products – only COH containing food.
Min. of 130g/day for RDA Fats – composed of lipids, insoluble in H20, provide 9kcal/g, important energy source, found in butter, margarine, regular oils,source of fat soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids. Plant oils – unsaturated (heart healthy) Proteins are chains of AA, important for building cells, tissues, maintaining bones, repairing damage, regulating metabolism and fluid balance, work as buffer for PH.
Sources include lean meats, low fat milk, dairy products. Fat Soluble Vitamins – A,D,E and K, dissolves easily in fats and in oils, can be stored in the body. Water Soluble – C and B vitamins, remain dissolved in water, excess water soluble vitamins are eliminated by the kidneys and not typically stored. Minerals – are inorganic, micronutrients, does not supply energy, required for body processes. Functions: fluid regulation, muscle movement bone structure. Water – critical nutrient for health and survival.
Involved in fluid balance, nerve impulse, muscle contractures, nutrient transfer and removal of wastes. – Main food sources (plant vs. animal) of 3 micronutrients – Know what EAR’s, EER, DRI’s, RDA’s, AI’s and UL’s mean; Know what and who they are used for: EAR – Estimated Average Requirements, RDA – Recommended Dietary Allowances, AI – Adequate Intakes, TUL – Tolerable Upper Limits, DRI’s – Dietary Reference Intakes, EER – Estimated Energy Requirement, AMDR – Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range – Know AMDR’s for 3 macronutrients
Carbohydrates – 45-65%, Fat 20-35% Protein 10-35% – Nutrition research: 3 main types of scientific method studies. – Epidemiological studies (historic data), human experiments ( case control and clinical studies) animal studies. Study factors include controls, sample size, appropriate to measure a difference between treatment groups. Designing a Healthful Diet – 4 main Diet Planning Principles – Adequate, Moderate, Balanced and Varied adequate – enough energy, nutrients and fiber, Moderate limits empty kcal foods: alcohol, salt sugar and fat.
– Review FDA nutrition labeling/claim requirements – What is a DV? – Review USDA/USDHHS Daily Food Guide/Pyramid & serving sized for each food group – Main differences between old and new food pyramids (1995 vs. 2005) vs. My Plate (2011) – Know 6 main food groups – Grains, Fruits, Vegetables, Oils (Fish & Plant), Meat and Dairy – Nutrient density vs. energy density – a ratio of nutrient content to the total energy content while energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume – DASH Diet Plan: what/who is it for?
A diet high in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products; low in saturated and total fats; low in cholesterol; and high in fiber. The diet is often described as the three plus five plan: three dairy, five fruits, and five vegetables per day. Research studies support the hypothesis that this diet reduces blood pressure and may play a role in prevention of high blood pressure. – Exchange System: what/who is it for? How does it differ from My Pyramid/My Plate? – Goals of Healthy People 2010 Increase quality and years of life, eliminate health disparities
Carbohydrates/Fiber/Diabetes – Simple vs. complex carbs – contain one or two molecules of sugar, long chains of glucose molecules – Starch vs. glycogen – Know 3 different monosaccharides – glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose/ribose – Know 3 dietary dissacharides and composition of each – sucrose, lactose and maltose – Know 3 polysaccharides. Which are important in diet and which is more important in the body? -glycogen, starch, cellulose, most fibers – Examples of dietary fiber – grains, rice, legumes, seeds, fruits – Health benefits of dietary fiber intake
– Potential negatives of excess fiber intake – Soluble vs. Insoluble fiber- dissolves in water, easily digested by bacteria in colon, found in citrus fruits, berries and oats. also reduces risk for CVD and Type II diabetes. IF -does not dissolve in water found in wheat brans, the husky, grains and vegetables. – Percentage recommendations for daily carbohydrate intake (AMDR) – Which foods contain carbohydrates? – Main differences between Type 1 and Type II Diabetes Mellitus, main cause of each type, risk factors, typical age of onset, symptoms, treatment, etc.
– Which foods should be restricted for diabetes and why? Which foods should be encouraged and why? – What are insulin and glucagon? What are their roles in the body? – Normal blood glucose range? 70-110 – Health risks/complications of diabetes (Type 1 and Type II) Liver has 8 hours of glycogen stored. Glucose – most abundant CHO, produced by plants via photosynthesis. Plants store CHO such as starch. Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose Glucose + Galactose – Lactose Glucose + Glucose = Maltose