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Ans1. Mother’s milk is a balanced diet containing lactose (milk sugar), fats, proteins, vitamins (except vitamin C), mineral salts (except iron) and antibodies (disease-fighting proteins). It is also easily digested and does not leave any waste matter. All these qualities make the mother’s milk best for the baby’s future growth, development and mental growth. Q2. What type of food should a pregnant woman be given? Ans2. A pregnant woman should be given protein rich diet because she has to supply nutrition to the developing embryo in addition to her own requirements.

Extra proteins are needed for tissue growth of the developing baby. A pregnant woman needs more carbohydrates and fats than usual to get extra energy to carry out all the building processes linked with the developing baby. Q3. Why are infants exposed to sunshine? Ans3. New born babies are exposed to sun-light because vitamin D can be synthesised by the action of sun light on a cholesterol derivative present in skin. Vitamin D is essential for normal growth and development of bones and teeth. Q4. State the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogenation of oils. Ans4.

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Advantages of hydrogenation of oils : (i) The advantage of hydrogenation of oils is that it produces solid fat which is more stable, more convenient to handle and use and has a better taste and flavour. (ii) The hydrogenated oils supply more energy than vegetable oils as such. Disadvantages of hydrogenation of oils : (i) The disadvantage of hydrogenation of oils is that it eliminates most of the essential fatty acids as the latter polyunsaturated fatty acids. (ii) Excessive use of hydrogenated oils causes obesity which results in many problems such as blood pressure, increased cholesterol etc.

Q5. What is food adulteration? Name one food adulterant. Ans5. Food adulteration is the contamination of food materials with cheap, toxic and low quality substances, example- haldi is mixed with lead chromate. Lead chromate is a cheap ; toxic substance. Hence, it acts as a food adulterant. Three mark questions with answers Q1. What is the chemical composition of carbohydrates, fats and proteins respectively? Ans1. (i) Carbohydrates are the compounds made up of three elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the proportion of hydrogen and oxygen being the same as in water.

(ii) Fats are also made of the same elements as carbohydrates- carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, but the proportion of oxygen in fats is much less than that in carbohydrates. (iii) Proteins are the compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some of the proteins also contain sulphur. Q2. What are proteins? State two conditions which necessitate a high protein diet. Ans2. Proteins are the highly complex organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur etc. which are needed for the growth and repair of the body. Proteins are polymers of amino acids.

Proteins in our body are present in the form of enzymes, hormones, transport proteins, structural proteins, contractile proteins, protective proteins and catalytic proteins. (i) A growing child needs a high-protein diet for the formation of body tissues. (ii) A nursing mother needs a protein rich diet for the formation of milk in her body. Q3. Explain the importance of proteins in the diet. Name four good sources of proteins. Ans3. Our diet should contain sufficient amount of proteins because proteins are the materials needed for the growth and repair of the body.

Proteins are required for the development of cells and tissues such as skin, muscles, blood and bones. Proteins are made up of amino acids and these amino acids are the building blocks of the body. Four good sources of proteins are groundnuts, pulses, milk and fish. Q4. Classify the vitamins in terms of their solubility. Give one example of each type. Ans4. Vitamins are complex organic compounds which are essential for the growth and maintenance of our body. These can be classified in two groups on the basis of their solubility : (i) Water soluble vitamins

(ii) Fat soluble vitamins. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin whereas vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin. Q5. Why is obesity called a disease? What are the causes of obesity? Why are obese people advised to avoid consuming high starch food? Ans5. Obesity is called a disease because obese people are not very active and are prone to other diseases especially related to the flow of blood in the heart. Obesity can be caused due to over-eating. Blind eating is the main cause of obesity.

It can also be caused by hormonal imbalance or other metabolic malfunctioning. The obese persons are advised to avoid consuming high starch food because the unutilized part of starchy food is converted to fat and accumulates in the body and resulting in obesity. Five mark questions with answers Q1. What are vitamins? Why are they important? Name five vitamins and state the diseases caused due to their deficiency. Ans1. Vitamins are the complex organic compounds found in some foods which are necessary for the well being of the entire body.

Vitamins are important because they help in catalyzing certain chemical reactions in our body and are necessary for proper digestion, normal growth, good health, good vision, healthy teeth, gums, bones and for life to be maintained.

Q2. What are minerals? State their importance in our body. Name two important minerals required for our body and state one important function of each of them. Ans2. The metals, non-metals and their salts are called minerals because they are mined from the earth. Our body needs minerals for its proper functioning, normal growth and good health. Minerals are needed to build bones and teeth, formation of blood corpuscles, coagulation of blood, functioning of muscles, nerves and thyroid gland etc. Several minerals are needed for enzymes to do their work.

The two important minerals required by our body are “Iron” and “Iodine”. Iron is needed to prepare a protein called haemoglobin present in blood which transports oxygen to the body tissues. Iodine is needed for the preparation of thyroid hormone (thyroxine) in our body which controls the physical, mental and sexual development of the body. Q3. Write the names of five different types of proteins and state their functions in the body. Ans3. The five different types of proteins are : Enzymes, hormones, transport proteins, contractile proteins and structural proteins.

The functions of these proteins in the body are as follows : (i) Enzymes catalyze the biochemical reactions like digestion, e. g. Pepsin. (ii) Hormones regulate many body functions, e. g. Thyroxine. (iii) Transport proteins carry various substances in the blood to different tissues of the body, e. g. Haemoglobin. (iv) Contractile proteins help in the contraction of muscles and other cells of the body, e. g. Actin. (v) Structural proteins form the structural elements of cells and tissues of the body, e. g. Collagen.

Q4. Name the diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamin B1 and vitamin B4. Write the symptoms of these diseases. Write one preventive measure to control this disease. Ans4. (i) The disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin B1 is beri-beri. The symptoms of beri-beri disease are water logging of the tissues, extreme weakness, head-ache, paralysis and even heart failure. The two sources of vitamin B1 are whole grain cereals and groundnuts. (ii) The disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin B4 is pellagra.

The symptoms of pellagra are skin eczema, diarrhoea, swelling of the tongue, mouth and gums and mental degeneration, popularly summarized as the three Ds – Diarrhoea, Dermatitis and Dementia. The two sources of vitamin B4 are milk and beans. Q5. Why do many people become obese as their age advances? Explain. Name any two diseases to which these people are more susceptible. Ans5. Many people become obese as their age advances because they continue to eat high energy diet which they cannot burn completely because of reduced physical activity or reduced work-load in the advanced age.

As the age of a person advances, less energy is utilized and so a smaller amount of food is required to maintain the body. However, as a matter of habit, the person continues to eat the same quantity of food as in earlier years. Thus, more food is taken in than that the body needs. This surplus food turns into fat and accumulates in the body of the person causing thus obesity. The obese people are most susceptible to cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis and coronary attack.

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