Psychotherapy forms the most effective mechanism of treating psychological disorders for its longtime application and evolution that entails intrinsic involvement of both the patient and psychotherapists. Though some authors appear to differ with its application, most of them are in agreement that by making the problem appreciated by the patient, the healing process becomes highly simplified as both patient and doctor move together addressing it with time. This paper is a critical review of literature on psychotherapy application in treatment.
Underlying theoretical considerations Irving and Bornstein (2009) give a holistic account of psychotherapy history. They indicate that this therapy can be traced back to the work of Sigmund Freud who viewed mind as a construct of three key parts; the superego, the ego and the id. From this understanding, it has been possible for latter psychologists to understand most of the psychological disorders origin and mechanisms to address them. In particular, popularizations of behaviorism in 20th century have greatly helped address mental disorders.
It is worth noting that latter psychotherapy models partly deviate from the Freud’s view by reflecting the strong role of the environment as opposed to an individual. In the social learning theory, Irving and Bornstein (2009) continue to explain that the environment is the key factor for behavior acquisition while BF Skinner emphasized on conditioning for change. However, modern psychotherapists combine various theories to achieve maximal results for their patients. Treatment mechanisms and their application (a) Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy involves a combination of cognitive and behavioral therapies largely employed in systematically solving problems related dysfunctional behaviors, emotions and cognitions. Hofmann, Sawyer and Fang (2010) evaluated the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies in treating patients with Body Dimorphic Disorder (BDD) through a modeled CBT protocol. The treatment’s ultimate goal is facilitating quality of life among adolescents by addressing maladaptive behaviors and thoughts through skills training to them and parents.
Hofmann et al (2010) report that for any Cognitive Behavior Therapy to take effect, a strategic procedure must be employed with short-term assessments to assess the progress and make key adjustments on the basis of patients progress. A key consideration of this application is ample understanding of an individual’s history which provides important insights towards the best approach and time to be taken in the treatment process. (b) Hypnotherapy According to Assen (2008), hypnotherapy is a relatively new form of psychotherapeutic treatment for psychological disorders.
This treatment entails an intrinsic evaluation of the possible causes of a disorder. The patient is assisted to come to contact with his subconscious state which is often done by resting them in a comfortable position and talking about it. While Assen (2008) appear contented about the efficacy of hypnotherapy, it has attracted sharp criticism as authors and scholars link it to myths for lack of empirical support. Anke et al (2010) take a strongly divergent view on application of hypnotherapy in treating psychological disorders.
Ankle et al (2010) publication therefore analyzes various psychological treatment models which have over the years been employed with great success. A major focus in their journal negates one of the year 2008 clinical psychology review by Imel and Wampod which lacked to emphasize on patients’ traumatic environment and memories. In their argument, they call for holistic testing of all treatment models used in treating psychological disorders and avoidance of personal intent before making conclusions as a facet for maintaining the needed integrity of the practice and most importantly, a healthier Society.
(c) Dialectical behavioral therapy Dialectical behavior therapy as Swales and Heidi (2009) explain is a psychotherapy model of treating mental disorders based on the understanding that people react differently to various situations that make them move out of the normal expectations. Application of this treatment is largely carried on people with Borderline Personality Disorder to reduce and change maladaptive behaviors. Its efficiency in addressing BPD as Swales and Heidi (2009) continue to say is that it combines both traditional non-therapeutic techniques and therapeutic considerations to reduce suicidal thoughts among in patients.
To further improve on the efficiency of this treatment, it assumes an open-ended design where new concepts are introduced depending with patient’s progress. Notably, Swales and Heidi (2009) argues that Dialectical Behavioral Therapy seeks to seal the loophole created by CBT on the sense of total change. With citing holistic change to be highly invalidating, Dialectic Behavior Therapy takes an alternative route which seeks to empower an individual by impacting key skills to them. Particularly, mediator improvement skills link the process to respective outcomes with emphasis on a new view of a person in the community.
In their study, Andrada, Shireen and Linehan (2010) evaluated the effectiveness of various skills taught in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy to individuals with Borderline Personality Disorders. While the model fails to invoke great interest by scholars, this publication reports the high efficiency for individuals who were involved during the study. Applying a hierarchical modeling system, patients who were treated using Dialectical Behavioral Therapy employed the taught skills more than three times and therefore made it possible to greatly reduce suicide attempts and self-injury.
Similar views are held by Fortune et al (2010) who strongly call for newer models towards addressing mental disorders. Conclusion Psychotherapy treatment came out in this review as a strong mechanism of treating mental disorders in the society. As a result, this conclusion supports the thesis statement, “Psychotherapy forms the most effective mechanism of treating psychological disorders for its longtime application and evolution that entails intrinsic involvement of both the patient and psychotherapists.
” Psychotherapeutic models came out to have strongly evolved over time as new understandings are generated. However, it is critical to maintain strong analytical support in all treatment models to maintain strong support, application and efficiency. References Andrada, D. , Shireen, L. & Linehan, M. (2010). Dialectical behavior therapy skills use as a mediator and outcome of treatment for borderline personality disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy. In press: Printed by Elsevier Limited. Anke, E. , Bisson, J. , Clark, M. , Creamer, M.
, Pilling, S. , Richards, D. , Paula, P. , Stuart, T. & William, Y. (2010). Do all psychological treatments really work the same in posttraumatic stress disorder? Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2)269-276. Assen, (2008). Cognitive hypnotherapy: An integrated approach to the treatment of emotional disorders. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Fortune, D. , Crawford, M. , Spence, R. , Mudd, D. , Barrett, B. , Coid, J. , Tyrer, P. & Moran, P. (2010). An Evaluation of New Services for Personality-Disordered Offenders: Staff and Service User Perspectives.
International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 56(2):186-195. Hofmann, S. , Sawyer, T. & Fang, F. (2010). The Empirical Status of the “New Wave” of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33(3)701-710. Irving, B. & Bornstein, R. (2009). Principles of psychotherapy: promoting evidence-based psychodynamic practice. (Edition3). New York: John Wiley and Sons. Swales, M. & Heidi, L. (2009). Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Distinctive Features. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Taylor & Francis.