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Substance abuse treatment refers to a modification of behavior therapy for the people who use alcohol or drugs to the detriment of others and their own bodies. According to Robert & Douglas (2003), law enforcement officials, religious leaders, and politicians often cite alcohol and drug abuse as a very big evil, and state that such abuse threatens the existence of the society.

The main goal of drug abuse treatment is to help an individual to gain lasting subsistence, but the immediate objective is to reduce tendency of drug abuse, to minimize social and medical complications, improve the ability of a patient to function, and to avoid drug addiction. There are various effective drug abuse treatment programs and policies that have been established. Among them is the treatment within the criminal justice system. The criminal justice system has established programs for drug abuse treatment, both for juveniles and for adults to help ensure that an offender is prevented from returning to criminal behaviors.

The system is rehabilitative, where offenders are given both medical and education assistance. These programs aim at transforming a person to fit back in the community. Studies have shown that, treatment does not have to be voluntary for it to be effective. Researchers assert that treatment can reduce drug abuse in half, drastically reduce criminal activities, and in effect reduce events of arrest. Drug abuse prevention refers to measures put in place to restrain, or prohibit people from the use of illicit drugs.

Drug prevention measures include offering educative programs to the youth, on the negative effects of drug abuse. The National Registry of prevention programs and the child safe prevention programs are some of the two models put in place to ensure that drug abuse prevention efforts are effective. This is done by offering education to the public on the negative effects of drug abuse as a preventive measure. The programs are also effective in giving drug abuse treatment to people who are already in the practice of drug abuse. Question, 2

International drug trafficking has become a transnational problem, and has become a matter of security in the United States. The negative effects of distribution, production and consumption of illicit drugs has caused tension in the international political relations, within families, communities and individuals. Robert & Douglas (2003) posited that, this in effect has led to political, social and economic problems. Locally, drug trafficking in the United States has caused damage to the mental health of individual persons who indulge themselves in drug abuse.

Drug abuse has resulted to an increase in criminal activities such as rape, burglary, increased youth gang groups who involve in drug abuse and other social immoralities. The tenancy of drug abuse has increased the burden and responsibility of the police. The third committee on the Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Rights is one of the legal bodies established to consider the issue of crime prevention, international drug control, and implementation of criminal justice. This committee pursues the reduction of drug abuse, based on rehabilitation and treatment, for those who are already victims addicted to drug abuse.

At the same time, the agency put in place programs to combat drug trafficking at the regional, national and international levels. Two Federal agencies have been put in place to fight on line sale of Narcotics. The Drug Enforcement Administration, and the Food and Drug Administration have come up with a unique task force to break down the increasing tide of illicit sale of Narcotic and other forms of drug trafficking on line. The drug enforcement administration (DEA), is another legal agency dealing, among other issues the issue of illicit drugs in the US.

This agency is in the United States Justice law Department, and is charged with the responsibility of combating drug use and smuggling within United States. Not only is the Drug Enforcement Administration agency charged with the enforcement of drug policy in the US, it also has the entire responsibility of pursuing and coordinating U. S drug investigations abroad. Question, 3 According to Nachman (2005), decriminalization of drug abuse does not legalize abuse of drugs within United States, but it instructs the police departments locally to treat this cases as being of law priority.

This is similar to the enforcement of Marijuana laws in California State. Specifically, the people given the responsibility to enforce the law take a different approach, allowing the drug traffickers, and those who engage in drug abuse to be free and have a peace of mind, and to report to the legal officers crimes against them, or any other crime incident they may have come across, without having to fear that the police are going to arrest them. In some proposals of decriminalization, the money that had previously been spent in enforcing drug abuse and drug trafficking laws is used in social service organizations.

Those in support of drug abuse decriminalization say that, doing this allows the drug abusers to access rights they may never have accessed, and offers those who abuse drugs the opportunity for medical tests so that they may be assisted both medically, and legally. Criminalizing drug abuse would create a friendly atmosphere where the society will be able to cooperate with the police, by reporting incidences of drug abuse and drug trafficking without the fear of being arrested.

Opponents of drug abuse decriminalization on the other hand argue that, this act would lead to rise of criminal acts within United States and attract more people to commit drug abuse offenses. It has been argued that decriminalization of drug abuse would make those who engage in such offenses to do what they want to do, without fear of the police, or of legal suctions. This would in effect lead to putting more burden to the police in trying to control drug abuse. In fact, those who oppose decriminalization of drug abuse say that such an act would be equal to legalization, since the laws applicable will not be applied effectively.

Researchers have asserted that, the effective option to the drug policy makers is the removal of sentencing and incarceration options for drug offenders. It has been suggested that the government should come up with policies that will enable the police to easily get information concerning drug abuse from the community, and the criminal themselves. Such policies should work to ensure that drug abuse victims are rehabilitated, and that those at the risk of abusing drugs are educated and advised against drug abuse.

The criminal justice system should strike a balance between criminalizing drug abuse, and ensuring that society protection and justice is attained. References Nachman B. (2005). The Politics and Morality of Deviance: Moral Panics, Drug Abuse, Deviant Science, and Reversed Stigmatization. New York: Routledge Publishers. Robert H. , & Douglas, Z. (2003). Handbook on Drug Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Strategy to Prevent the Abuse of Alcohol and Other Drugs. Original from the University of Michigan.

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