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Most people deplore violence, some people embrace violence, and a few people renounce violence. But one thing is clear–the word still runs a certain obscurity. Usually, we think of violence as involving physical force and the association of force with violence. Although we like to think of ourselves as a peaceful people, relative to many other nations America is a violent country. It is worth noting that the United States figures as the highest murder rate at 7. 9 per 100,000. (The Sign of the Last days. ). In family and community violence, every state requires that a report of suspected child abuse be made “immediately” or “promptly.

” This means that as soon as one suspects abuse, he/she must inform the appropriate agency. In a typical protective service investigation of alleged maltreatment, the professional must decide if it is a kind of maltreatment extreme enough to justify community intervention. Certain social and personal factors, such as neighborhood setting and the patterns of community interaction, influence how people interrelate. In cases of community violence, the neighborhood setting affects the children’s mobility, exposure to adults, friendship patterns and types of play.

Community interaction is important to the development of the child because of its supportive links to the family. The community can be better used by children if the school can treat the community as an educational resource. The community can also be better used by children if the community itself opens itself to children and the youth belonging to that place. Thus, in cases of child maltreatment, the person must report the case to police or social agencies. There are professionals and persons who are responsible for child management, parent education, support groups, and supervision by a child protective agency.

Various programs for the child include hospitalization when necessary, residential care, child care, foster care, adoption and therapy. Choice, as well as effectiveness, of such intervention programs depends on the individual child, the family and the community context (Violence in public health and preventive medicine). Beyond the challenge of identifying and assessing maltreatment, agencies and practitioners confront the challenge of providing effective treatment or intervention programs (Garbarino, Guttman & Seely, 1986). In order to protect the child, legal intervention is the first requirement.

An advocate group can form to solve and monitor a particular problem, or it can be an ongoing support group for children’s problems in general. An example of an ongoing children’s advocate group is the Children’s Defense Fund (CDF), developed in 1973 to provide a strong and effective voice for all the children in America who cannot vote, lobby or speak for themselves. Particular attention is paid to the needs of poor and minority children and those with disabilities (CDF, 1996). Being an effective advocate requires knowledge of both the facts and the law.

Careful research into various situations must occur before advocacy efforts at reforms can take place. Advocacy involves not only research and pressure for legislative reform but also follow-up on implementation of the reform. It might seem peculiar, but acts that are defined as violent or not violent vary according to who provides the definition. For example, consider the behavior some have referred to as covert, institutional violence: racism, sexism and classism. Does denial of a job to a qualified woman because of her sex, the refusal of a landlord to rent an apartment to a Black family constitute an act of violence?

Violence, some observers may say, means that a person is violated in some way. There is harm done to a person’s body, dignity, autonomy and freedom. Prior to the 1960`s explanations for violence, aggression and homicide were claimed to be the manifestations of a drive to inflict harm on others. If it were true that the will to commit violence is caused by a strong and more or less un-modifiable instinct, we would expect a rate of violence from one society, nation, and period of history to another. The differences would have to be explained by extenuating circumstances.

Instead, what we see is immense variation for all of these comparisons. It is difficult to understand how the manifestation of an inborn instinct could be subject to as much variation as we actually observe. What is or is not regarded as an act of violence, and as a consequence, labeled as deviance, is not solely dependent on the damage inflict by the act. Rather, what leads observers to think of an act as an instance of violence depends on what they see as legitimate or illegitimate, justified or unjustified, excusable or inexcusable actions taken by one person or set of persons against another person or persons.

At the same time, while a huge universe of actions remains controversial, there is unquestionably a solid core of actions that nearly all observers would regard as violent. Indeed, the main goal in treating the abusive family is to improve the relationship between the parents and children in order to prevent further maltreatment. To be an advocate, one must make a personal commitment, keep informed, know the process, express one’s views, get support, be visible, show appreciation, build rapport and trust, and educate one’s legislators. REFERENCES U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/bjs/cvict_c. htm The Unbearable Memories of a U. N. Peacekeeper; New York Times; New York, N. Y. ; Oct 8, 2000; Tina Rosenberg; Late Edition (East Coast), page 4. 14, ISSN 03624331. Violence in public health and preventive medicine; The Lancet; London; May 20, 2000; James Gilligan; V 355, Issue 9217, page 1802-1804, ISSN 01406736. Reflections from a life behind bars: Build colleges, not prisons; The Chronicle of Higher Education; Washington; Oct 16, 1998; James Gilligan; V 45, Issue 8, page B7-B9, ISSN 00095982. The Sign of the Last days. http://user. tninet.

se/~oof408u/fkf/english/sign6. htm REFERENCES U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/bjs/cvict_c. htm Garbarino, Guttman & Seely, 1986 The Unbearable Memories of a U. N. Peacekeeper; New York Times; New York, N. Y. ; Oct 8, 2000; Tina Rosenberg; Late Edition (East Coast), page 4. 14, ISSN 03624331. Violence in public health and preventive medicine; The Lancet; London; May 20, 2000; James Gilligan; V 355, Issue 9217, page 1802-1804, ISSN 01406736. Reflections from a life behind bars: Build colleges, not prisons; The Chronicle of Higher

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