Wildlife Conservation in My Country In Malaysia, just like elsewhere the modern world, many species of wildlife are disappearing fast, and conservation measures are needed to prevent animals and plants from vanishing for good. Habitat destruction is a main part of the problem but many animals are being killed and taken by hunters and poachers too. Many rare animals are hunted for food and even for sport. Some are caught alive and then sold on to collectors. One of the saddest and sickest reasons that animals are hunted is because of the crazy supernatural belief that parts of their bodies, such as rhino horn, have magic properties.
Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas including the most developed urban sites, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities.
Conservation is a planned management of a natural resource or of a particular ecosystem to prevent exploitation, pollution, destruction, or neglect and to ensure the future usability of the resource. Living resources are renewable, minerals and fossil fuels are non-renewable. Wildlife conservation is the preservation, protection, or restoration of wildlife and their environment, especially in relation to endangered and vulnerable species. All living non-domesticated animals, even if bred, hatched or born in captivity, are considered wild animals.
Wildlife represents all the non-cultivated and non-domesticated animals living in their natural habitats. Our own country also has many unique and rare animals, birds and reptiles. However the pressure of growing population in different parts of the world has led to the increasing need of using land for human habitations and agriculture. This has led to the reduced habitat of many wild animals. Besides that, it may also cause on the extinction of many of animal such as tigers, tapirs, rhinos and so on. With Malaysia’s wildlife being some of the most diverse on arth, and it being a Megadiverse country, the Malaysian government is interested in protecting it. The government aims to balance economic growth with environmental protection, but has been accused of favouring big business over the environment. Smoke haze from Indonesia occasionally causes problems further north, and fires caused from forest burning in 1997 obscured large parts of Southeast Asia and Australasia in smog. At current rates of forest lost the rainforests will disappear within a generation.
Over 80% of Sarawak has been cleared, and this clearing has caused animals traditionally in lowland forest to retreat into the upland rain forests inland. Logging, along with cultivation practices has devastated tree cover, causing severe environmental degradation in the country. Floods in East Malaysia have been worsened by the loss of trees, and over 60% of the Peninsula’s forest has been cleared. With current rates of deforestation, the forests are predicted to be extinct by 2020. Deforestation is a major problem for fauna such as tigers, as the forest is cut to make room for plantations, mostly for Palm oil and other cash crops.
The Orang utan population has dropped 40% in the last 20 years. Hunting has also been an issue. Animals such as the Asian Elephant have been forced out of their habitat due to its loss, often forcing them to starve. Once so common that complaints existed of them trampling people gardens, Sumatran Rhinoceroses are likely to go extinct in Malaysia. Hornbills are steadily declining in numbers. Most remaining forest is found inside national parks. Wild habitats all over the world are fast disappearing.
Forests are being cut down, rivers and seas polluted, heath lands built on, hedgerows pulled up, ponds filled in the destruction seems endless. As the habitats decrease, so do their communities of animals and plants. Habitat destruction is one of the main reasons why many species face extinction. Habitats are commonly split up and animals can’t get from one part to another, unless wildlife ‘corridors’ are provided. Other reasons for their demise include the hunting of animals and collection of plants. Now they are facing a new threat, that of climate changes.
A report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) shows nearly one third of amphibians, more than one in eight birds and nearly a quarter of mammals are threatened with extinction. 869 species are already described as being extinct or extinct in the wild which disappeared from the earth forever. Besides that, the air, water and soil of habitats all over the world have been polluted in many difference way. This pollution affects the health of living things. Air is damaged by car and lorry fumes, and power stations create acid rain which destroys entire forests and lakes.
When fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal are burned to provide energy for lighting, cooking and so on, they form polluting gases. Oils spills pollute sea water and kill marine life; chemical waste from factories and sewage works, and artificial fertilisers from farmland, pollute river water, killing wildlife and spreading disease. The careless or deliberate dumping of litter in the environment is not only unsightly but dangerous for wildlife too. However, our government has taken a serious action on this issue. In our country, the government noticed that habitat destruction has proved a threat for marine life.
Illegal fishing is another major threat, In Sabah alone, almost 3000 turtles are killed as by-catch per year. Illegal fishing methods such as dynamite fishing and poisoning have also depleted marine ecosystems. Leatherback Turtle numbers have dropped 98% since the 1950’s. Overconsumption and the use of animal parts for profit have also endangered marine life, as well as Tigers, whose meat can be found in restaurants in Kuala Lumpur. Tigers received official protection in 1976, when they numbered a mere 300. Marine life is also detrimentally affected by uncontrolled tourism.
Shoreline erosion in places has reached 10metres (33 ft) a year. Some state governments are now trying to counter the environmental impact and pollution created by deforestation. Sabah has developed sustainable forest reserves, and the government is trying to cut logging by 10% per year. 28 national parks have been created, the first in 1938 by the British. There are 23 on East Malaysia and 7 on the Peninsular. The Malaysian government is also trying to preserve marine life, creating a joint project with Indonesia and the Philippines to look after the Sulu Sea, as well as limiting tourism in areas such as Sipadan Island.
Marine parks have banned fishing and motorised sports. To counter coastal erosion, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation have installed artificial reefs around the country’s shores. These reefs are also meant to revive marine ecosystems. Animal trafficking is a large issue, and the Malaysian government is holding talks with the governments of Brunei and Indonesia to standardize anti-trafficking laws. The government is aiming to double the wild tiger population by 2020. Furthermore, we, as a huge community also have to protect wildlife habitat.
Perhaps the greatest threat that faces many species is the widespread destruction of habitat. Deforestation, farming, over-grazing and development all result in irreversible changes soil compaction, erosion, desertification, and alteration of local climatic conditions. Such land use practices vastly alter or even eliminate wildlife habitat. In areas where rare species are present, habitat destruction can quickly force a species to extinction. By protecting habitat, entire communities of animals can be protected together and when communities are kept intact, less conservation intervention is required to ensure species survival.
Parks, reserves, and other protected lands are too often the only habitats left untouched by habitat destruction. Moreover, we can join a conservation organization. There is a wide range of conservation organizations working to protect endangered animals and habitats. Different organizations have different objectives some work to protect a small plot of land or to protect whales, others focus on establishing good environmental policies in local government. If we have a specific area of interest, we can often find an organization that is working to protect the species or habitats we are most concerned about.
By joining in, we can support well-organized, ongoing efforts to protect species and habitats. And if we want to participate in conservation field work, we can often get involved in specific programs within many conservation organizations that rely to a great extent on help from volunteers. As an individual we also can help in protecting the wildlife from extinction. For example, we have to minimize on use of herbicides and pesticides of the plantation. Herbicides and pesticides may keep yards looking nice but they are in fact hazardous pollutants that affect wildlife at many levels.
Many herbicides and pesticides take a long time to degrade and build up in the soils or throughout the food chain. Some groups of animals such as amphibians are particularly vulnerable to these chemical pollutants and suffer greatly as a result of the high levels of herbicides and pesticides in their habitat. In addition, we can also voice our concerns and get involved locally. This will show that how we are concern about this issue. By letting local and national governments know that we are concerned about endangered species, we are increasing the likelihood that someone will do something about it.
At the same time, we need to make an effort to increase the living things which have been becoming less in number. In such places as botanical gardens, zoos and laboratories, studies and experiments are made to artificially increase the number of animals or plants. The latest biotechnology and cloning techniques are sometimes used in the process. There are also many people who are trying hard to continue their own preservation activities with the passionate drive to devote them to saving wildlife, even if they have to do it alone. For instance, plants produce the oxygen that we need to breathe.
The life of a plant relies on pollen carried by insects and minerals found in animal carcasses. In other words, the earth has many life forms whose lives depend on one another. This is called biodiversity. When an animal or other life form becomes extinct, it breaks its link with other life forms, and threatens our lives as well. Our present day awareness of the importance of protecting endangered species and their habitats is a good thing, but it has come too late for many species that have gone extinct throughout the world. Some have gone extinct not too long ago.
Usually most cases of extinction are a result of the work of humans. Put that way, it may seem we should stop all activity that harms animals. But in reality, we can’t go back to the Stone Age, so some agricultural and industrial activity is necessary if we are to sustain our lifestyles. What we should do is aim for a new era where people and animals can coexist, an era unlike the Stone Age or even the 20th century. Summary The pressure of growing population in different parts of the world has led to the increasing need of using land for human habitations and agriculture.
It may also cause on the extinction of many of animal. The Malaysian government is interested in protecting it. Wild habitats all over the world are fast disappearing. Some state governments are now trying to counter the environmental impact and pollution created by deforestation Forests are being cut down, rivers and seas polluted, heath lands built on, hedgerows pulled up, ponds filled in the destruction seems endless. Other reasons for their demise include the hunting of animals and collection of plants. The air, water and soil of habitats all over the world have been polluted in many difference way.
So, we as a huge community also have to protect wildlife habitat. Moreover, we can join a conservation organization. We also have to minimize on use of herbicides and pesticides of the plantation. we can also voice our concerns and get involved locally. We need to make an effort to increase the living things which have been becoming less in number. In such places as botanical gardens, zoos and laboratories, studies and experiments are made to artificially increase the number of animals or plants. Name : Nur Asiah binti Hamidon I/C : 940212-01-5432 School: Sekolah Menengah Sains Muar