CAMBRIDGE E X A M I N AT I O N S , C E RT I F I C AT E S & D I P L O M A S CAE ENGLISH PA P E R 1 C E R T I F I C AT E I N A D VA N C E D S A M P L E PA P E R S English as a Foreign Language PA P E R 1 R E A D I N G S A M P L E PA P E R 2 FIRST TEXT/QUESTIONS 1–17 Answer questions 1–17 by referring to the newspaper article about travel guide books on page 3. Indicate your answers on the separate answer sheet. For questions 1–17, answer by choosing from the list (A–G) on the right below. Some of the choices may be required more than once. Note: When more than one answer is required, these may be given in any order.
Of which series of books are the following stated? The tone of one of its guides is too serious. One of its guides has been greatly improved. Its guides give ratings to places. The market for its guides is expanding. Its guides adopt a new approach to design. One of its guides is generally considered a classic. Some of its guides are written by new writers. Its guides convey a sense of the pleasures of travelling. There are not many guides in this series. Its guides are accused of having an undesirable effect. Its guides are particularly good for people who have never been to the area before.
The quality of writing in its guides is higher than in any of the others. Important facts are missing from all of its guides. It includes the guide which best describes the atmosphere of the Caribbean. 1 ……….. 2 ……….. 3 ……….. 4 ……….. 5 ……….. 6 ……….. 7 ……….. B 8 ……….. C 9 ……….. D 10 ……….. 11 ……….. E Michelin Trade and Travel Cadogan Rough Guide A Lonely Planet 12 ……….. 13 ……….. F Access 14 ……….. G Everyman 15 ……….. 16 ……….. 17 ……….. Remember to put your answers on the separate answer sheet. 0150/1 S96 Page 2 3 Travel Companions
I have this problem with guide books. I read too many hurriedly (usually on a plane) and then forget them and my debt to them. When I’m travelling, I soon learn which to reach for first (perhaps the safest indicator of which is best). But a few countries later I have forgotten perhaps not which I chose, but almost certainly why. Good ones are the kick-start for the experience, rather than the experience itself. So, drawing up a shortlist of the best guide book series seemed a touch high-handed – especially when you add the vagaries of the series to the equation, for even the best produces its share of hopeless volumes.
What turned it into the confident work of minutes rather than days of agonising was a simple and, once I had thought of it, obvious test. All that was necessary was to imagine I was going somewhere I knew absolutely nothing about and ask myself what guide books I would look at first. The efficacy of this ploy was such that, when I asked a few other people to do the same, it came as no surprise to find that we were in almost total agreement. The first two were the easiest. Without any question my first stop would be the Lonely Planet and the Rough Guide series.
I couldn’t, and wouldn’t, choose between them in advance. There is more between titles within the series than there is between the series themselves. If both covered my destinations (as they usually do), I would want them both in my hand luggage. Both are practical and tell you the things you really want to know (such as where to get a good cheap meal, and the bus to your next destination). Both started with the young backpacker in mind, and both are now broadening their target readership to include the more affluent 30plus reader.
The Rough Guides, perhaps the more even of the two series, tend to be stronger on Europe and the cultural background, and the more obsessed with what is now termed political correctness (yet they rarely have anything to do with politics). Mark Ottaway looks at the best travel guide books available The Lonely Planets are usually stronger east of Suez, and capture the sheer joy of travelling somewhat better. Neither object to the generalisation that the Rough Guides are travels by writers, whereas their Australian rivals are written by travellers.
To complain, as critics occasionally have, that these guides are guilty of attracting too many people to unspoiled spots, is to miss the point. It proves that both series are good guide books. The Rough Guide empire emerged from unpromising beginnings. The very first one, written 10 years ago, was the book on Greece its young authors wanted, but couldn’t find. It had many defects not worth dwelling on now (the current edition is excellent), but for similar reasons I was slow to appreciate the value of the Cadogan series. Its Greek volume, by its most prolific author, is widely admired. But I have rarely found it worth consulting.
It was not until a recent trawl of Caribbean islands that I found the Cadogan volume was the one I was reaching for first. It was the one which really captured the ‘feel’of the islands. It also had reliable recommendations. Further investigation revealed the series to be the best-written of all, with a record of bringing on promising young writers, as well as capturing such established stars as Michael Haag, whose Egypt it has just published. Prague, New York, Portugal and Morocco are particularly good titles. The best book for a destination depends on the destination and you, as well as on 0150/1/S96 the book itself.
For instance, the Caribbean Islands Handbook from the dourly named Trade and Travel Publications had also accompanied me around the Caribbean. This comes from the same stable as the South American Handbook, now in its 70th edition, and widely held to be the greatest guide book of all time. For erudition and encyclopedic scope, the South American volume is without equal. But, though not without a certain wry humour (and on occasions a barely suppressed joy at unearthing arcane information), one wishes it would allow itself to be outrageously subjective once in a while. This probably explains why it was rarely the first I reached for.
The Caribbean is a place for colour and gut reactions, rather than deadpan assessment. The Michelin green guides are good value and manage the balancing act between opinion and solid information to perfection. Michelin’s star system (from three for ‘worth the journey’ downwards) tells the newcomer to a region exactly what and where its priorities are, and is the best aid to planning an itinerary from scratch that I know. There is nothing on restaurants and hotels, of course, and the red guides with which the green mesh ingeniously, though excellent works of reference in their way, do not entirely fill the gap.
Michelin is no good on atmosphere – or people. Personally, they interest me more than buildings and museums. The future almost certainly lies with more graphically adventurous guides. Among those warranting honourable mention are the Access series on American and European cities, with its user-friendly layout, and the stunning artwork of the new, and few, Everyman guides, which are literally a joy to hold. In this video age, it will no longer be enough to tell people how to use the buses. You need to show them the ticket machines, too. Turn over Page 3 4 4 SECOND TEXT/QUESTIONS 18-23 For questions 18-23, you must choose which of the paragraphs A – G on page 5 fit into the numbered gaps in the following magazine article. There is one extra paragraph which does not fit in any of the gaps. Indicate your answers on the separate answer sheet. Part 2 DOLPHIN RESCUE Free time isn’t in the vocabulary of British Divers’ Marine Life Rescue teams; one fairly normal weekend recently spilled over into three weeks, as a seal move turned into a major dolphin rescue.
To find a beached and stranded dolphin is a rarity; to nurse one back from the brink of death, and reintroduce it into the wild, is almost unheard of. Only two cases have occurred in Britain, the most recent of which involved a rescue team from British Divers’ Marine Life Rescue. They started the weekend trying to relocate a 9ft bull seal and finished it fighting to save a dolphin’s life after the Sea Life Centre on the south coast had informed them that a dolphin was beached at Mudeford (pronounced Muddyford) near Bournemouth. The dolphin was found by a lady, who must have heard the message telling anyone who found it what to do.
The animal was kept wet and its blowhole clean. Mark Stevens of the rescue team says: “The dolphin would have certainly been in a worse condition, if not dead, if that lady hadn’t known what to do. ” 18 “I can’t thank those people enough. The woman even gave us her lemonade so we could have a much-needed drink. ” The Sea Life Centre had hastily moved several large tope and the odd stingray from their quarantine tank, and the dolphin was duly installed. 19 By 1 a. m. the team were running out of energy and needed more help. But where do you find volunteers at that time of night?
Mark knew of only one place and called his friends at the local dive centre. 20 The team allowed the photographers in for a few minutes at a time, not wanting to stress the creature too much. They had to walk a fine line between highlighting the animal’s ordeal and being detrimental to its health. 21 How a striped dolphin got stranded in Mudeford isn’t clear because they are primarily an oceangoing, rather than an inshore, species. Theories suggest that he was chucked out of his pod (group of dolphins) for some reason and, maybe chasing fish or attracted by the sounds coming from the Mudeford water festival, wandered into the bay by accident. 2 It took several days before the dolphin was comfortable enough to feed itself – in the meantime it had to be tube-fed. Fish was mashed up and forced down a tube inserted into the dolphin’s stomach. It’s not a nice procedure, but without it the dolphin would have died. Eventually he started to feed and respond to treatment. 23 His health improved so much that it was decided to release him, and on Tuesday, 24th August, the boat Deeply Dippy carried the dolphin out past the headland near the Sea Life Centre. The release, thankfully, went without a hitch; the dolphin hung around the area for a while before heading out to sea.
And that was the end of another successful operation. 0150/1 W96 Page 4 5 A He actually started toying with the team and trying to gain attention. He would increase his heart rate and show distress so a team member had to quickly suit up to check him over. But as the person entered the pool, his heart rate returned to normal. E However, by the time they arrived, the dolphin had started to swim unsupported. The press picked up on the story and descended on the Sea Life Centre wanting stories, pictures and any information they could get hold of. And they wanted a name.
Mark and the other team members had a hasty think and came up with ‘Muddy’ – after all, it was found at Mudeford. B It is large but has only a small opening so, once in, getting out isn’t easy. The boats at the event would have panicked the creature and it ended up beached, battered and drained of energy. F Now the battle to save its life could begin, but a transportation problem arose. How do you get a grown dolphin back to the Sea Life Centre without a vehicle big enough? C The story actually appeared in several national newspapers as well as the local press.
Publicity is very important for charities like the Marine Life Rescue, providing precious exposure which pleases the sponsor companies and highlights the team’s work. G D Luck then seemed to be on the team’s side when a double-glazing van-driver stopped to investigate. The driver offered his services to transport the dolphin back to the Sea Life Centre and a lady spectator gave the team a brand new cooler box to store valuable water to keep the dolphin moist. The creature was so weakened by the ordeal that it could not even keep itself afloat and had to be walked in the tank to stop it from just sinking to the bottom and drowning.
Most people can only walk a dolphin for around 20 minutes to half an hour. Holding a 150 kg animal away from your body and walking through water at sea temperature saps your strength. Remember to put your answers on the separate answer sheet. 0150/1 W96 [Turn over Page 5 66 Part 3 THIRD TEXT/QUESTIONS 24-28 Read the following newspaper article and then answer questions 24-28 on page 7. On your answer sheet, indicate the letter A, B, C or D against the number of each question 24-28. Give only one answer to each question.
Indicate your answers on the separate answer sheet. RESURRECTION OF A DEAD MAN’S DREAM Few great architects have been so adamant in their belief in the integration of architecture and design as Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Clients who tried to modify his grip on every detail of the structure, interior decoration or furniture often ended up with the architect losing his temper – and his commission. Now, 63 years after he died, Mackintosh has found the perfect patron, in the form of a 56-year-old structural engineer and fellow Glaswegian named Graham Roxburgh.
The story begins with a competition launched in December 1900 by Zeitschrift Fur Innendekoration, an innovative design magazine published in the German city of Darmstadt. European architects were invited to design an Art Lover’s House. Mackintosh sent in his entry in March 1901, his one chance to design a house unfettered by financial constraints or a conservative client. But he was disqualified for failing to include the required number of drawings of the interior. He hastily completed the portfolio, which he then resubmitted.
Delighted with the designs, the judges awarded Mackintosh a special prize (there was no outright winner). Publication of these drawings did much to establish Mackintosh’s reputation abroad as an original and distinctive architect, particularly in Austria and Germany. The Art Lover’s House is an important twentieth-century building because it anticipates the abstract forms of Modernism. At first glance it could be an illustration from the thirties. Artists of the avant-garde Vienna Secession described Mackintosh as “our leader who showed us the way” – an acclaim that he was never able to gain at home.
Rich Glasgow businessmen never quite took him seriously. But today Glaswegians hail Mackintosh as their local genius. Three years ago, the enterprising Mr Roxburgh, who has already rescued Craigie Hall, a mansion on the outskirts of Glasgow that Mackintosh helped design, hatched a plan to build the Art Lover’s House – now close to completion on a site in Glasgow’s Bellahouston Park. Strathclyde Council, the Scottish Development Agency and the Scottish Tourist Board have picked up a third of the hefty ? 3 million bill. Roxburgh has raised the rest through sponsorship and private loans.
The original designs contradict each other in places. Details of the elaborate external stone carvings and much of the furniture and fittings for the main interiors – which will be open to the public – are exact, but Mackintosh gave no indication of what should be done with the lower ground floor or the roof spaces. No matter, for the area will be rented out as offices to recoup some of the costs. The plans have been meticulously interpreted by Andy McMillan of Glasgow’s Mackintosh School of Architecture and the furniture made by an expert cabinet-maker.
The elegant, mysterious music-room is lit by tall windows along one side; the vertical lines are repeated in the elongated female figures embroidered on linen that hang in the recesses, in the clusters of coloured lamps suspended on slender wires and the uncomfortable high-backed chairs. The whole effect culminates in the strange superstructure of the piano. What would Mackintosh have made of the Art Lover’s House? There is a danger it will be all too perfect, like those expensive reproduction Mackintosh chairs you find in shiny magazines or on the dust-free floors of design buffs.
Yet Roxburgh’s attention to detail and refusal to cut corners makes him a man after Mackintosh’s heart. He is now hunting for an extra ? 300,000 to complete the interiors according to his exacting requirements. 0151/1 W96 Page 6 7 24 Why were there sometimes problems between Mackintosh and his clients? A B C D Mackintosh resented interference from his clients. Clients refused to pay him in full for his work. Mackintosh did not pay enough attention to detail. Clients did not like the changes Mackintosh made. 25 According to the writer, Mackintosh decided to enter the competition because A B C D not many drawings had to be submitted. o designs were required for furniture. there was no need to worry about cost. he had designed similar buildings before. 26 What was significant about Mackintosh’s entry for the competition? A B C D It was considered to be ahead of its time. It was based on architecture from Austria and Germany. It changed the opinion of him in his own country. It was the most attractive building he had designed. 27 Mackintosh’s original designs for the Art Lover’s House A B C D included areas intended for commercial use. gave full information about the interior. concentrated on external features. were incomplete in certain respects. 8 If Mackintosh could see the Art Lover’s House now, the writer feels he would probably A B C D think that it had cost too much. wish he had completed his designs. think it was an improvement on his design. approve of Roxburgh’s approach to building it. Remember to put your answers on the separate answer sheet. 0151/1 W96 [Turn over Page 7 8 Part 4 FOURTH TEXT/QUESTIONS 29-46 Answer questions 29-46 by referring to the magazine article about races for distance runners on pages 9 –10. For questions 29-46 choose your answers from the list of races (A– G). Indicate your answers on the separate answer sheet. Note: When more then one nswer is required, these may be given in any order. Some choices may be required more than once. Which race or races is open to children? generates a lot of money for worthy causes? has not changed much since it began? has separate races for different ability groups? begins in a confused manner? began as a very simple race? takes place in an isolated scenic area? caters for anything runners may require? existed a long time before marathon running became popular? have more participants than the races they were originally based on? restricts entry according to runners’ ability? offer good value for money? s highly regarded among athletes? offers facilities to prepare runners for the race? shows participants the diversity of life in that city? is organised so that participants are not too close together? 29 ………. 30 ………. 31 ………. A Swiss Alpine Races 32 ………. 33 ………. 34 ………. 35 ………. 36 ………. D New York City Marathon 37 ………. E Medoc and Graves Marathon C Boston Marathon B Stramilano 15 km & Half-Marathon 38 ………. 39……….. 40 ………. F Bolder Boulder 41 ………. 42……….. 43 ………. 44 ………. 45 ………. G London Marathon 46 ……….
Remember to put your answers on the separate answer sheet. 0150/1 S97 Page 8 9 WORLD’S TOP DISTANCE RACES We’ve scoured the globe to find the world’s best distance events – and we’ve found them, 7 races which you simply must run if you get the chance. A SWISS ALPINE RACES C BOSTON MARATHON This is as beautiful – and tortuous – as it sounds: the Swiss Alpine races take runners through verdant upland meadows and deep woods on primitive running trails. Runners travel through tunnels, over high wooden bridges, up flights of steps and through mountain villages, with only yodelling spectators to break the silence.
Two of the three races (the 28-kilometre Landwasserlauf and the 67-kilometre ‘marathon’) begin benignly enough on a stadium track in Davos (at 5,000 m), a centre for high-altitude sports training in Europe. The mid-distance Sertiglauf covers the last 39 kilometres of the marathon course, providing runners with the challenge of crossing the 3,000 m Sertig Pass. Founded as recently as 1986, the races already attract more than 2,000 runners from over 20 countries to the south-eastern, Germanspeaking quadrant of Switzerland.
A training camp, held the week before the race, includes alpine running and hiking in the mountains to help runners to acclimatise to the altitude. Qualifying for Boston has become a goal for runners everywhere. Arguably the world’s most famous marathon (now over 100 years old), Boston was known to sports fans decades before there was any such thing as a running boom. While the event has been modernised to accommodate the financial realities of big-time marathoning, Boston retains many of its charms and traditions from the old days. One is the Monday noon start (Patriots Day in Massachusetts) at Hopkinton’s village green.
The Boston experience includes Hopkinton’s crowded and frantic start, the deafening cheers from the women of Wellesley College, the reality test of the Newton Hills (including, at 17 miles, the infamous Heartbreak Hill) and a downtown Boston finish in front of thousands of spectators. Runners take over the city the weekend before, with exhibitions, warm-up runs along the Charles River and famous-runner sightings among the leading activities. Moderately demanding qualifying standards limit the field to about 7,000 and add prestige to the event. B
STRAMILANO 15KM & HALF-MARATHON D NEW YORK CITY MARATHON Italy’s electrifying Stramilano breaks the pattern for road races by holding separate events in four classes of running. On the Saturday, thousands of spectators jam the streets at the heart of the city of 1. 7 million people to watch 200 elite men run a four-lap half-marathon. The next day’s citizens’ 15-kilometre race draws a field of around 50,000 from 50 countries to trek from the Piazza Duomo (the square in front of Milan’s massive white marble cathedral, which dates from 1386) to Arena Stadium.
About 2,500 nonelite runners opt for a half-marathon that begins and ends in the stadium. Finally, there’s a 6-kilometre junior fun run from the Piazza Duomo to the stadium. Founded in 1972, Stramilano is one of the best deals in international road racing. For the equivalent of ? 5, runners receive a programme, medal and T-shirt. Until recently, the race has been largely unknown outside Italy, even though Milan has long been Italy’s centre for finance, sport and some of the greatest northern Italian cuisine.
The ‘big daddy’ of the modern big-city megamarathon, the New York traces its humble origins to a four-lap run around Central Park which took place in 1970, with 55 finishers. When the race went citywide in 1976, the world took notice, and the field has now ballooned to nearly 30,000. Apply early for entry – more runners are rejected than accepted through New York’s lottery system. The race starts at the world’s largest suspension bridge, the Verrazano Narrows, and finishes among falling autumn leaves in stately Central Park.
The meandering point-topoint course (with some hills) passes through all five New York boroughs, giving runners a rich sampling of the city’s many ethnic neighbourhoods and subcultures and weaving them through crowds of enthusiastic spectators. The race-support covers every imaginable runner need, from foreign-language translation to psychological trauma counselling. 0150/1 S97 Page 9 10 E THE MEDOC AND GRAVES MARATHON G LONDON MARATHON It may not be the ideal race to set a world best in, but if it’s fun and frivolity you want throughout your 42 kilometres, then Medoc has it in abundance.
It features an extraordinary party in the grounds of an ancient chateau, a route that cuts through the cloistered, manicured private vineyards of the region, and the kind of hospitality and atmosphere that no other event can match. Fancy dress is the order of the day, with wide-eyed villagers turning out to cheer on hordes of runners as they make their slow progress from the wine parishes of Pauillac, St Estephe, St Julien and Margaux. Finishers get an open-air supper and take home a wooden-cased bottle of claret, a pendant cast as a bunch of grapes and a knapsack to carry the goodies in.
Understandably, the French make up the lion’s share of the field, but although large tour groups are discouraged, single competitors or small independent groups are welcomed with open arms. Apply early – it’s the most popular marathon in France and always heavily oversubscribed. But with all that for under a fiver, it’s not hard to understand why. Inspired by Chris Brasher’s trip to New York in 1980, the race has now surpassed its older American cousin in numbers of applicants, entrants and finishers.
In 1994, with the finish moved from Westminster Bridge back down the Mall to the steps of Buckingham Palace, the number of finishers reached a historic high of 25,000. The now familiar flat-to-downhill course, starting at Greenwich Park and on Blackheath Common and passing the Cutty Sark, the Tower of London and the Houses of Parliament along the way, packs in more history than a secondary-school textbook. Competition for places is intense, with the lottery for ‘open’ spots denting more than a few British club runners’ ambitions.
Not only is the race the world’s biggest in numerical terms, it also raises the most money for charity. Cartoon characters, charging rhinos and Zulu warriors all find their way onto the start line, with thousands of pounds riding on their successful finish. F BOLDER BOULDER Set in the Rocky Mountain foothills and with the presence of a core of elite athletes and a fitnessmad population, one of America’s largest 10kilometre races is a natural outgrowth of the Boulder Community. Few cities do a better job of giving 30,000 runners a memorable day without losing them in the masses.
Some 40 wave starts, in which runners are grouped with those of similar ability, ensure a smooth, uncrowded course. The ‘citizen’ divisions begin first, so that later everybody gets to watch separate fields of elite men and women sprint to the tape in the 51,000-seat Folsom Field stadium. To take your mind off the gruelling nature of this hilly, mile-high course, there are entertainers performing along the way, including belly dancers, gymnasts and rock bands. There are 10 prizes for each age group, and all finishers receive a certificate with their official time and placing.
The race has gone from strength to strength since 1979, when local banker Steve Bosley and Olympic gold medallist Frank Shorter created the event. 0150/1 S97 Page 10 PA P E R 1 R E A D I N G A N S W E R K E Y Part 4 A C A D D 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38/39 40 41/42 43 44 45 46 B G C B C D A D C D/G C B/E C A D F Part 1 1 2 3 4/5 6/7 8 9 10 11 12/13 14 15 16 17 D B E A/B F/G D C A G A/B E C E C Part 2 18 19 20 21 22 23 Part 3 D G E C B A 24 25 26 27 28 Questions 1-17 and 29-46 are given one mark each. Questions 18-28 are given two marks each. The total score is adjusted to give a mark out of 40. Page 11