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An infection is originated by the assault of foreign cells, like bacteria in human beings which cause damage to the host organism. Usually the host organism is termed as being “colonized” by the cells which do not belong to it. The colonization is only considered to be an infection, if the invasion results in the damage of the host organism. There are various types of infections which have be discovered by the physicians and all of them have dissimilar characteristics except the one that they tend to damage the human body, and if not cured then many of them become so intense, then even the death of the host organism can also take place.

There are many examples of living cells which profit from being colonized by other cells. Two distinctive organisms can possibly enjoy a symbiotic association to each other, which troubles neither of the organisms. On the other hand there is a possibility that a colony of cells might have no effect on the host organism, but could promote the colony. All this depends upon the symbiotic relationship between the host and the foreign cells, in certain cases they this relationship results in the betterment of both the organisms and in some cases the nature of relationship is so that it neither benefits not harm any of the associates.

Unless the bacteria or the foreign cells organisms do not make the person ill the instance cannot be labeled as an infection. Bacteria are not the only organisms which result in infections, viruses, parasites, and fungi also create problems for the body of the human beings and they too are equally dangerous for the metabolism of the humans. There are many factors which assist these foreign cells to get into the human body and then to get the multiplied by damaging the host cells; these factors are needed to be controlled in order to save the human body from illness.

As it is being said that prevention is better than cure therefore it is better to control the factors which assist the infections in growing than to treat the infections once they have got the inroads into the human body. Adults are less prone to infections in comparison to the children as they have a stronger immunity than that of the children; one of the major reasons of this is that as the older ones have spent more time in the environment than the neonates and the children therefore their bodies get used to the surroundings and hence they have better chance to fight with the foreign assaults.

Less resistance in the bodies of the children especially the neonates is one thing which makes them more vulnerable when it comes to infections; this thing is only developed with the passage of time so more preventive measures are needed to be applied in the case of infants as they tend to receive the infections earlier and secondly as their internal resistance is lower so it becomes difficult for them to fight with the external assaults; as a result of all this sometimes irrevocable damage is done to the children especially neonates.

Another factor which increases the vulnerability and defenselessness of the children especially neonates, is that as they are in the initial stages of their life hence no vaccination has been done, whereas on the other side the adults have got the necessary amount of vaccination which prevents them from the attacks of the microorganisms. In general one can state that all the methods of infection prevention that apply in the adult situation also apply to the pediatric setting but due to some of the factors which are stated above the need to tighten the measures increases.

In addition to this extra focus has to be made on the preventive measures designed for the neonates in comparison to the adults; the role of parents and the hospital staff is pivotal in this case as they are the ones which are greatly in direct touch with the infants, hence they should comprehend the importance of this issue; awareness is the key in this regard if the close relatives of the neonates and the hospital staff is made to realize the vitality of infection preventive measures and technique then certainly the infant mortality rate will decrease to a considerable extent.

Neonatal deaths now report for 40% of the residual child deaths, approximately 4 million infants die per annum; this is mostly due to the incompetency of the hospital staff and less awareness of the parents and the relatives of these babies. Unfortunately most of these deaths occur in the low- and middle-income countries; this is due to the lack of government support to the health institutions and vulnerable health facilities. Approximately 36% of these infant deaths are caused by various types of infections.

Pneumonia/Sepsis alone accounts 26% of the whole amount; whereas Diarrhea causes 3% and Tetanus results in 7% neonate deaths globally. All three above mentioned diseases are curable in fact they are easily preventable if basics are known to the ones concerned; the basic awareness is lacking amongst the people which is resulting in such huge infant mortality rate; this figure certainly can be lessened if specific and effective preventive measures and methods are applied in the pediatric settings.

Infection Prevention and Control As mentioned above that the need for infection prevention and control is vital for the new born babies more than anyone else therefore extra diligence is needed in this regard. The areas which require extra attention in the pediatric setting are discussed in this part of the report; along with significant differences to the adult health care setting. This will make the comprehension of this issue easier as comparison can be based on the differences which will be duly stated.

The issue of the nosocomial infections is also discussed as this is very critical in the context of the pediatric settings, a most of the cases are reported due to the complacent behavior of the staff of the health care institutions. The dos and the don’ts regarding this are also discussed in great detail so as to provide an in-depth view of the topic. The issues which need added attention in the child health care settings have been discussed below in detail: Vaccination: Vaccine prevents the illness in the people who receive them and defend them who come in contact with the people who are not vaccinated.

This is the importance of the vaccination for any human body as this is the source for the development of immunity in any person, the probability of a person to get the disease decreases to a considerable extent if he has got the prescribed dosage of the vaccines recommended. Vaccines play a major role as far as prevention of infections is related, as they form such organisms in the human body which have the ability to resist the foreign assaults and save the host organisms.

Most of the common infections like influenza, chickenpox etc can be easily dealt with if proper vaccination of the person has been done; diseases like polio and smallpox have also been controlled in most of the countries by making sure that everyone get vaccine. Vaccination in one thing which is of more importance to the children than the adults; the reason for this is that the immunity system of the adults is stronger whereas the immunological naivety of young children is one thing which makes them an easy prey for the infections.

The staff of the health care institutions needs to be very cautious and careful in this regard and they should communicate the prescribed time frame of the vaccinations to the parents of the neonates so that they do not miss the dosage; in addition to this the health care personnel should be proactive in this regard as any lenience can make irrevocable damage to the health of the new born babies.

Another issue which has recently emerged especially in the developing countries is that, children are unfortunately been provided with expired vaccines; this is something which should not be tolerated at any cost, the quality of the medicine should be up to the mark in order for it being effective.

The parents are needed to be more aware on this issue as this is closely concerned with the lives of their neonates; the more the parents will be high on literacy regarding this matter, more it will be beneficial for the babies. Visitor Checking: Hand Hygiene: Emergency departments Hospital Wards: Toys: Milk: Hospital Staff: Equipment Sterilization: Awareness amongst the Parents: Conclusion

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