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John Dryden :his born in 1631- 1700 is an influential English poet , literary critic , and play write who dominated the literary life of the Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circle as the Age of Dryden . when the great play of London close the theater in 1665 , Dryden retreated to Wilt Shire where he wrote ‘ Of Dramatic Poetry ‘ that in was 1668 , it is the best of his unsystematic prophesies and essays .

Of dramatic poetry takes the form of dialogue in which four character , each based on prominent contemporary , with Dryden himself as Neander debate the merits of classical French and English drama . And he is the one who establish the heroic couplet in poetry . ” among the rest , it was …. ” introduce the character Eugeinus ( Morden Drama) , Crites (ancient Drama) , Lisideius (French Drama ) and Neander (English Drama ) . They famous people because they are poets like Dryden .

He use borrowed names because he doesn’t want mention their name because he shows the discourse so he doesn’t want hurt any one . The whole essay about ;; it’s a dialogue between four characters, these four characters are Eurypides, Crites, Lisideius and Neander 1- Crites ;; for ancient drama 2- Eugenius ;; for modern drama 3- Lisideius ;; for French drama 4- Neander ;; for English drama A- The first debate start with Crites defending ancient dramatic poetry : 1- ” If confidence presage …. he speaks to Eugenius . ” Our great praise … “we imitate the ancient it is good credit to us why ? because they are the one invented drama and help it to get mature and the modern for us built by foundation as was he said . 2- ” yet poesie being then … ” in old time the drama had more value than now because of that there was a kind of competition because it was high esteem ( value ) , there were judges to judge the merits of the poetry and there were historian to record the achievement the poets . nut now since the Reward …. ” but now there is no prize of honur give it to the poem , and the competition based on Malice (so hate each other ) . ” And this , in short , … “in the ancient times the judges were reward the poets and just judges and fair but now there are a few good poets and a lot of judges with hard judge for that we and that is not good . 3- “those ancient .. …plays” ancient are faithful imitators of natural and also they have wisdom when they observe nature opposite us is v badly represented in our plays . – ” out of these two … ” from these works they produced famous rules the three unity : place , time , and action a- Unity of time in the play they ….. ancient are truly observe this unity but now they don’t observe it as like the ancient . “for t b- Unity of place , ” for the abservation … ” they are v careful in this unity of place and in the one scene can’t see the places of change until we move in the act if the act begin in a Garden it is ended in the same place so they don’t change the places even the French not only the ancient . C-Unity of action, it is the third one 22] As for the third Unity which is that of Action, the Ancients meant no other by it then what the Logicians do by their Finis, the end or scope of an action: that which is the first in Intention, and last in Execution: now the Poet is to aim at one great and complete action, >> so the poet is to aim at one great and complete action, one major and main plot ( to the carrying on of which all things in his Play,>> so all the things and the development in the play are biased on this main action even the very obstacles, are to be subservient; >> they are minor and help the main action and the reason of this is as evident as any of the former). 23] For two Actions equally labour’d and driven on by the Writer, would destroy the unity of the Poem; ;; one more action would destroy the unity according to the ancient (it would be no longer one Play, but two: not but that there may be many actions in a Play, as Ben. Johnson has observ’d in his discoveries; but they must be all subservient to the great one, which our language happily expresses in the name of under-plots: So the point here,, The Ancient observe the unity of action >> one main plot and we might have many minor plots to support the major action,, and never we have tow main action because if I have tow I will end by tow plays. 24] If by these Rules (to omit many other drawn from the Precepts and Practice of the Ancients) we should judge our modern Playes;>> he said if we are judge our modern plays according to these roles the result would be >> ’tis probable, that few of them would endure the tryal:;;; he mean that the modern don’t avid by the rules of ancient ,, they are few of them will tryal ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? )that which should be the business of a day, takes up in some of them an age; instead of one action they are the Epitomes of a mans life; and for one spot of ground (which the Stage should represent) we are sometimes in more Countries then the Map can show us. 25] But if we will allow the Ancients to have contriv’d well, we must acknowledge them to have writ better;;; so they write better than the modern English according to Crites but so long as Aristophanes in the old Comedy, and Plautus in the new are extant; while the Tragedies of ;; examples (Eurypides, Sophocles, and Seneca are to be had, I can never see one of those Plays which are now written, but it encreases my admiration of the Ancients ;; he is praising the ancient for their way of writing and the application of the rules of writing and yet I must acknowledge further, that to admire them as we ought, we should understand them better than we do ;; we should understand the ancient to appreciate them. (Ben. Johnson) was willing to give place to them in all things: He was not onely a professed Imitator of Horace, but a learned Plagiary of all the others; ;; he is giving me example of the moderns , the moderns didn’t applied the rules except Ben Johnson, because he apply the rules of the ancient he is successful writer. ————————————————- We’re done with Crites ————————————————- 10 point don’t forget it girls The second debate by : Eugeniuse’s argument

The second debate by Eugenius an answer to Crites, Eugeniuse said that he acknowledges that the modern have profited (???????? )from the rules of the ancient , but they have excelled them and added to them of their own work and study. The modern didn’t imitate blindly, but they imitates nature and touch upon features the ancient missed. So this is the main argument it around this point ,, Crites had no sooner left speaking, but Eugenius who waited with some impatience for it, thus began: [27] I have observ’d in your Speech that the former part of it is convincing as to what the Moderns have profitted by the rules of the Ancients ;; so he agrees with Crites in the point that the modern have profited from the rules of the ancient. ut in the latter you are careful to conceal how much they have excell’d them: >> here the point that they differ on it , that Crites said the ancient they have rules but he tries to conceal that the modern excel them. own all the helps we have from them>>so he acknowledges the fact that they have profited from the ancient and want neither veneration nor gratitude while we acknowledge that to overcome them we must make use of the advantages we have receiv’d from them; but to these assistances we have joyned our own industry; for (had we sate down with a dull imitation of them) we might then have lost somewhat of the old perfection, but never acquir’d any that was new.

We draw not therefore after their lines, but those of Nature; and having the life before us, besides the experience of all they knew, it is no wonder if we hit some airs and features which they have miss’d: ;; so this is the first point he acknowledges that they profited from the ancient but they added their own industry and their own experience. He said we have our life , our identity so we may use of the experience of the ancient but we add to it . also he said here if our literature is an imitate of the ancient we might then lost some of the old perfection. Actually we profited from the ancient but we were imitate not ancient but Nature ;; so many experience, s many ideas Because if we follow the ancient it become mere imitation . so that why we heed some features that they had missed . So all of this is point number ONE .

Now he will give the defect and the reasons of the adventures and disadvantages of the modern : it shall now be my task to show you some part of their defects;; he will compare and contrast the first defect : [28] Be pleased then in the first place to take notice, that the Greek Poesie, which Crites has affirm’d to have arriv’d to perfection in the Reign of the old Comedy ;; he will show the defect of the old comedy that Crites said it’s perfect was so far from it, that the distinction of it into Acts was not known to them; or if it were, it is yet so darkly deliver’d to us that we can not make it out. ;; so the first defect that the old comedy didn’t divided into acts because according to Aristotle the play has to be divided into act ,, also if the ancient have division they are not clear .

So the first defect is : the comedy doesn’t divided into acts even if there a division it was fake. Now how they divide their comedy ….. [29] All we know of it is from the singing of their Chorus, and that too is so uncertain that in some of their Plays we have reason to conjecture they sung more then five times: Aristotle indeed divides the integral parts of a Play into four:;; he said that they divide by the singing by Chorus (group of people) they sing a song then they back to the action. And also he sais that the Chorus sometime sing more than four time ,and according to Aristotle the play should not be more that four acts. ————————————————- The second defect : t has already been judiciously observ’d by a late Writer, that in their Tragedies it was onely some Tale deriv’d from Thebes or Troy, or at lest some thing that happen’d in those two Ages; which was worn so thred bare by the Pens of all the Epique Poets, and even by Tradition it self of the Talkative Greeklings (as Ben Johnson calls them) that before it came upon the Stage, it was already known to all the Audience: and the people so soon as ever they heard the Name of Oedipus, knew as well as the Poet, that he had kill’d his Father by mistake, and committed Incest with his Mother >> So the second defect on the type of plot in both comedy and tragedy. {A} So the problem of their plot that they take it from history.

It was only some tales delivered from Thebes or Troy or some thing that happened on those old ages ( common stories from the past , traditional plot on their tragedy). Also the plots are repeated on the epic and tragedies stories ;; so it commonly known. So if they have the same plot the purpose of poetry which is to teach and delight, So if I don’t have delight I wouldn’t learn , because their plots are repeated I will feel it’s born and never learn. Novelty being gone, the pleasure vanish’d: so that one main end of Dramatique Poesie in its Definition, which was to cause Delight, as of consequence destroy’d. >> Novelty means ??????? . so if I don’t have novelty the pleasure vanished , so the aim of the poetry will destroy. {B} Plots of comedy: 32] In their Comedies, the Romans generally borrow’d their Plots from the Greek Poets; >> in their comedy they borrowed from the Greek poet ( traditional repeated plots ) and we have stock characters ????? and theirs was commonly a little Girle stollen or wandred from her Parents, brought back unknown to the same City, there got with child by some lewd young fellow; who, by the help of his servant, cheats his father, and …. >> An example of their stock character. ____________________________________________________________ __________________________ The third defect : So it is about the unites, he mention that Crites said that ancient is better than the modern because they applied the unites , and Eugenius want to detent the modern by mention these unites and it is a applied . 36] But in how straight a compass soever they have bounded their Plots and Characters, we will pass it by, if they have regularly pursued them, and perfectly observ’d those three Unities of Time, Place, and Action: the knowledge of which you say is deriv’d to us from them >> you(Crites) told us that the knowledge of the three unites from the ancient But in the first place give me leave to tell you, that the Unity of Place, how ever it might be practised by them, was never any of their Rules >> so now he is speaking about the unity of place, he told Crites that the ancient didn’t invent the unity of place , it is true they apply it in their place but not really they invented : We neither find it in Aristotle, Horace, of any who have written of it, ;; there is no one of the ancient apply it (???? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ) till in our age the French Poets first made it a Precept of the Stage. gt;; so the French who invent the unity of place The unity of time, even Terence himself (who was the best and the most regular of them) has neglected: ;; even the unity of time and action that themselves invented not all of them apply it and he give example. ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ The fourth defect : It related to the continuity of scenes. I can evaluate the work and give it good evaluation because of the continuity of scenes , that mean there is no disturbing and descript when I follow. Now he comment in this point Crites said that they have advantage and merit foe the ancient because they have continuity of scene ,, but we can’t consider this advantage because of the simple plot they have >> they have very simple plot without any complexity so there is no problem. ————————————————- 38] ‘Tis true, they have kept the continuity, or as you call’d it Liaison des Scenes somewhat better: two do not perpetually come in together, talk, and go out together; and other two succeed them, and do the same throughout the Act, which the English call by the name of single Scenes; but the reason is, because they have seldom above two or three Scenes, properly so call’d, in every act; for it is to be accounted a new Scene, not every time the Stage is empty, but every person who enters, though to others, makes it so: because he introduces a new business: Now the Plots of their Plays being narrow, and the persons few, one of their Acts was written in a less compass then one of our well wrought Scenes, ;; they( ancient) have very simple plot so it’s logically will be continuity , and their act equal one scene of us . o we can’t call it continuity they have very narrow plot and few number of character. The fifth defect : [39] But as they have fail’d both in laying of their Plots, and managing of them, swerving from the Rules of their own Art, by mis-representing Nature to us, >> so this is the point they misrepresent the nature in which they have ill satified one intention of a Play, which was delight >> and they fail to apply the tow goals of art which are to teach and delight. , so in the instructive part they have err’d worse ;; they have big errors instead of punishing Vice and rewarding Virtue,;; they don’t punish the evil and don’t reward virtue . hey do the opposite so they don’t teach and don’t delight . ____________________________________________________________ __________________ The sixth defect : Related to the ancient that they specialize in writing one field therefore their defect can’t be pardon: [40] And one farther note of them let me leave you: Tragedies and Comedies were not writ then as they are now, promiscuously, by the same person; >> they specialize that mean the one who write comedy didn’t write tragedy, so for this their mistake will be unforgiving , so you have to produce better. So he said that the errors of the ancient is bigger than us because they are specialize in one field. aving then so much care to excel in one kind, very little is to be pardon’d them if they miscarried in it; and this would lead me to the consideration of their wit, had not Crites given me sufficient warning not to be too bold in my judgment of it; because the languages being dead, and many of the Customes and little accidents on which it depended, lost to us, we are not competent judges of it. >> the idea is clear ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________ The seven defect : Related to the ancient that tackle the theme of love and passion . they always have revenge and general themes away of the theme of passion and love. ————————————————- or Love-Scenes you will find few among them, >> few of them that concern with the theme of love and passion Tragique Poets dealt not with that soft passion, but with Lust, Cruelty, Revenge, Ambition, and those bloody actions they produc’d; ;; they concern with the theme of all this example lust , revenge … which were more capable of raising horrour then compassion in an audience: leaving love untoucht, whose gentleness would have temper’d them, >> they want to leave theme love alone because it might effect our passion. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________ The third debate by : Lisideius’s argument :

His argues in fever of French dramatist mainly in the grounds that they followed classical rules more closely that the English dramatist. He compare between the English drama and the French showing how the French excelled and became better than the ancient. So now he is mentioning the advantages of the modern French The first advantage is : They apply the rules of the classical ( unity of time, place and action ) . but because Crites, in his Discourse for the Ancients, has prevented me, by touching upon many Rules of the Stage, which the Moderns have borrow’d from them; I shall onely, in short, demand of you, whether you are not convinc’d that of all Nations the French have best observ’d them? >> them mean the classical rules.

In the unity of time you find them so scrupulous, that it yet remains a dispute among their Poets, whether the artificial day of twelve hours more or less >> so the first rule that the French really applied it ( unity of time), he mean that the French really apply the rules and specially the unity of time ( one day ) even that they become better than the ancient , be not meant by Aristotle, rather than the natural one of twenty four; and consequently whether all Plays ought not to be reduc’d into that compass? This I can testifie, that in all their Drama’s writ within these last 20 years and upwards >> 20 year and above , there is no French writer does more than 24 hours. have not observ’d any that have extended the time to thirty hours: ;; or ever 30 hours . in the unity of place they are full as scrupulous, for many of their Criticks limit it to that very spot of ground where the Play is suppos’d to begin; none of them exceed the compass of the same Town or City. >> unity of place >> in one place all the action will happened . nd no one of them get more one place so they apply the unity of place too. [53] The unity of Action in all their Plays is yet more conspicuous, for they do not burden them with under-plots, >> they have one main plot there is no more under plot. as the English do; >> the English is more complicated and have so many under plots . which is the reason why many Scenes of our Tragic-comedies carry on a design that is nothing of kinne to the main Plot; >> that’s why the French is better than the English, the English have many subplot even in the tragic-comedy they have some scenes not related to the main plot. It seems like I have more than one plot in one play. The second advantage : 55] But to leave our Playes, and return to theirs, I have noted one great advantage they have had in the Plotting of their Tragedies; that is, they are always grounded upon some known History: ;; they mean the French : accarding to that of Horace, Ex noto fictum carmen sequar; and in that they have so imitated the Ancients that they have supass’d them. >> so they were grounded upon known history it is advantage according to Lisideius but according to Eugeniuse it is disadvantage . Lisideius sees that it is advantage because they take it from truth history so it is well documented. The third advantage : They have limited number of characters. [60] But I return again to French Writers; who, as I have said, do not burden themselves too much with Plot, which has been reproach’d to them by an ingenious person of our Nation as a fault, for he says they commonly make ut one person considerable in a Play; ;; because they have one main acting so the main character carrying the action. They may have minor character but they are limited number. they dwell upon him, and his concernments, while the rest of the persons are onely subservient to set him off. ;; on major character and it could have minor character that help the major character to develop the action. But the English have so many minor characters. [62] There are indeed some protatick persons in the Ancients, whom they make use of in their Playes, ;; the ancient have so many characters, but in the play not only characters who take role in the play.

There some persons who are not characters in the play but they play a role ,, like the one who come in stage and relates incident to you , in the Greek comedy you will see character relates or try to link or relation and try to explain to you. but the French avoid this with great address ;; so French trying to avoid this , making their narrations onely to, or by such who are some way interested in the main design. ;; in the French if anyone will mention any relation he will be from the character themselves. [63] But there is another sort of Relations, that is, of things hapning in the Action of the Play, and suppos’d to be done behind the Scenes: >> there some actions or situation it supposed to be done behind the scene , so they mention these actions through characters . lso like the battle > it has to have big number of people to do it. But the French if they have battle they don’t acted on the stage . but the English acted in very ridicules manner , they may bring 5 people to represent army ?????? and this is many times both convenient and beautiful: for, by it, the French avoid the tumult, which we are subject to in England, by representing Duells, Battells, and the like; which renders our Stage too like the Theaters, where they fight Prizes. For what is more ridiculous then to represent an Army with a Drum and five men behind it ;; the idea is clear enjoy it . 7mdella I did it good luck to all of you ,, Asma Al-qunisi

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